Crime and Abuse Against Seniors:
A Review of the Research Literature With Special Reference to the Canadian Situation


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  • Aged Rights Advocacy Service (1999) Statistics Related to Elder Abuse by Family or Friends,

  • American Geriatrics Society (2005) Elder Mistreatment,

  • American Psychological Association (2009) Elder Abuse and Neglect: In Search of Solutions;

  • Biggs, Simon, Anthea Tinker, and Claudine McCreadie (2005) Research into the National Prevalence in the UK of Mistreatment and Abuse of People Over 65. London: King's College.

  • Blum, R. (1972) Deceivers and Deceived: Observations on Confidence Men and Their Victims, Informants and Their Quarry, Political and Industrial Spies, and Ordinary Citizens. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas.

  • Brower, H.T. (1992) "Physical restraints: a potential form of abuse" Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect 4: 47 58.

  • Canadian Network for the Prevention of Elder Abuse (2009) Abuse in Institutions, Abuse or Neglect of Older Adults Ever Occur in Long Term Care Facilities.

  • College of Nurses of Ontario (1993) Abuse of Clients by RNs and RNAs: Report to Council on Result of Canada Health Monitor Survey of Registrants. Toronto, p. 1 11.

  • Cornish, D. and R.V. Clarke (1986) The Reasoning Criminal: Rational Choice Perspectives on Offending. New York: Springer-Verlag.

  • Dunn, Peter F. (1995) "Elder abuse as an innovation to Australia: A critical overview." In J. Kosberg and J. Garcia (eds.), Elder Abuse: International and Cross-Cultural Perspectives. London: Routledge.

  • Dyer, C.B., Connolly, M.T., and McFeeley, P. (2003) "The clinical and medical forensics of elder abuse and neglect." In Elder Mistreatment: Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation in an Aging America, ed. R.J. Bonnie and R.B. Wallace, Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

  • Environics Research Group (2008) Awareness and Perceptions of Canadians Toward Elder Abuse. Ottawa: Human Resources and Social Development Canada.

  • EKOS Research Associates (2002) Public Attitudes Toward Family Violence: A Syndicated Study. Ottawa: EKOS.

  • Federal Bureau of Investigation (n.d.) Fraud Target: Senior Citizens.

  • Gabor, T. and Mata, F. (2004) "Victimization and repeat victimization over the life span: A predictive study and implications for policy." International Review of Victimology 10: 193 221.

  • Goodridge, D.M., Johnston, P. and Thomson, M. (1996) "Conflict and aggression as stressors in the work environment of nursing assistants: Implications for institutional elder abuse." Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect 8(1). 49 67.

  • Hall, B.L. and Bocksnick J.G. (1995) "Therapeutic recreation for the institutionalized elderly: Choice or abuse." Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect, 7(4), 49 60.

  • House of Commons Health Committee (2003 2004) Elder Abuse: Second Report of Session 2003 2004. London: The Stationery Office.

  • Illinois State Triad (1998) Responding to Elderly Crime Victims: Model Protocol for Law Enforcement. Springfield, Ill.: Illinois State Triad.

  • Johnson, Kelly D. (2002) Financial Crimes Against the Elderly. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice.

  • Kogut, A.S. (1993) "Assisting nursing home residents who have suffered theft or damage to their personal property" Michigan Bar Journal,72: 50 53.

  • Kurrle, S., P. Sadler, and T. Lockwood (1997) "Elder abuse: Prevalence, intervention and outcomes in patients referred to four Aged Care assessment teams." Medical Journal of Australia 166: 119 122.

  • Lee, J and Geistfeld, L. (1999) "Elderly consumers' receptiveness to telemarketing fraud." Journal of Public Policy and Marketing 18: 208 217.

  • Los Angeles County DA's Office (2009) Elder Abuse,

  • McDonald, S. (2007) Seniors and Mass Marketing Fraud: Executive Summary (Ekos Research Survey). Ottawa: Department of Justice Canada.

  • McNamee, C. and Murphy, Mary (2006) "Elder abuse in the United States." NIJ Journal (November).

  • Meddaugh, D.I. (1993). "Covert elder abuse in the nursing home." Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect, 5 (3), 21 3.

  • Menio, D.A. (1996.) "Advocating for the rights of vulnerable nursing home residents: Creative strategies." Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect 8(3), 59 72.

  • National Center on Elder Abuse (1998) The National Elder Abuse Incidence Study: Final Report. Washington, D.C.: National Aging Information Center.

  • National Center on Elder Abuse (2005) Fifteen Questions and Answers About Elder Abuse, 6-06-05 3-18-0512-10-04qa.pdf.

  • Nerenberg, Lisa (2002) "Abuse in nursing homes." National Center on Elder Abuse,

  • Ogrodnick, L. (2007) Seniors As Victims of Crime 2004 and 2005. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics;

  • Ogrodnick, L. (2008) Family Violence in Canada: A Statistical Profile. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

  • O'Hanlon, K. (1997) "Let those pesky telemarketers down easy." The Los Angeles Times Oct.6, p.ED7.

  • Payne, B.K. and Cikovic, R. (1995) "An empirical examination of the characteristics, consequences, and causes of elder abuse in nursing homes." Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect 7 (4), 61 74.

  • Pillemer, K. and Moore, D.W. (1989). "Abuse of patients in nursing homes: Findings from a survey of staff." Gerontologist, 29(3), 314 320.

  • Pillemer, K. and Moore, D.W. (1990) "Highlights from a study of abuse of patients in nursing homes." Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect, 2 (1/2), 5 29.

  • Podnieks, E., Pillemer, K., Nicholson, J. P., Shillington, T., and Frizell, A. F. (1990) National Survey on Abuse of the Elderly in Canada. Toronto, ON: Ryerson Polytechnical Institute.

  • Price, G. and C. Fox (1997) "The Massachusetts bank reporting project: An edge against elder financial exploitation." Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect 8: 59 71.

  • Protection for Persons in Care Act (2003 4) 1st Quarterly Report,

  • Quinn, Mary and Tomita, Susan (1986) Elder Abuse and Neglect: Causes, Diagnosis and Intervention Strategies. New York: Springer.

  • Shaw, M.M. (1998) "Nursing home resident abuse by staff: Exploring the dynamics." Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect 9(4), 1 21.

  • Shiferaw, Mittelmark, M.B, Wollford, J.L., and Anderson, R.T., (1994) "The investigation of reported cases of elder abuse; The Forsyth County aging study." Gerontologist 34: 123 125.

  • Sklar, J. (2000) "Elder and dependent adult fraud: A sampler of actual cases to profile the Offenders and the Crimes They Perpetrate." Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect 12: 19 32.

  • Slotter, K. (1998) "Combating telemarketing fraud." F.B.I. Law Enforcement Bulletin 67: 9 17.

  • Spencer, C. (1994) Abuse of Older Adults in Institutional Settings. Ottawa: Health Canada, Mental Health Division.

  • Spencer, C. (1998) Diminishing Returns: An Examination of Financial Abuse of Older Adults in British Columbia. Vancouver: Gerontology Research Centre, Simon Fraser University.

  • Statistics Canada (2009) Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Incident-Based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey.

  • Titus, Richard and Angela Glover (2001) "Personal fraud: the victims and the scams." Crime Prevention Studies 12: 133 151.

  • Tueth, M. (2000) "Exposing financial exploitation of impaired elderly person." American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 8: 104 111.

  • U.S. Department of Justice (2008) Financial Crimes Against the Elderly,

  • U.S. Senate Special Commission on Aging, Elder Fraud and Abuse (2000) New Challenges in the Digital Economy. March 15.

  • Woolf, Linda M. (1998) Elder Abuse and Neglect,

  • World Health Organization (2009) "Prevention of Elder abuse",,ng/project

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