Comparison of Case Processing Under the Young Offenders Act and the First Six Months of the Youth Criminal Justice Act


Table 33: Factors Affecting Custody Sentences, before and after the YCJA: Regression Coefficients and Significance of Individual Factors, by Court Location
  Halifax Toronto & Scarborough Winnipeg Edmonton Vancouver & Surrey Total
  YOA
sample
YCJA
sample
YOA
sample
YCJA
sample
YOA
sample
YCJA
sample
YOA
sample
YCJA
sample
YOA
sample
YCJA
sample
YOA
sample
YCJA
sample
  Dependent variable = no custody/deferred custody versus custody/deferred custody
Regression coefficients (standardized betas) and the degree of significance (p value)
Number of sentenced cases 282 95 308 86 293 142 361 143 301 122 1532 575
Non-legal (social) factors
Being female                     -0,04 -0,05
Age in years, 12 to 17         0.04 0.13         0.02 0.08 *
Being Aboriginal         0.14 ** 0.17 * 0.04 0.00 0.05 0.20 * 0.02 0.10 **
1+ social or psychological problem 0.10 * -0.12 0.03 0.18 0.03 -0.15 * 0.09 0.07 0.14 ** 0.03 0.08 *** -0.05
Legal factors: prior record
1+ prior custody sentence     0.36 *** 0.02 0.41 *** 0.28 *** 0.33 *** 0.31 *** 0.21 ** 0.11 0.31 *** 0.19 ***
1+ prior probation breach conviction                 0.12 0.11 0.08 ** 0.07
Legal factors: current offences
Number of current convictions 0.34 *** 0.14 0.32 *** 0.06 0.19 ** 0.20 * 0.27 *** 0.06 0.32 *** 0.16 0.31 *** 0.19 ***
1+ indictable person conviction 0.10 * 0.10 0.18 *** 0.13 0.09 0.09 0.06 0.21 ** 0.12 * -0.04 0.11 *** 0.13 ***
1+ hybrid person conviction -0.09 -0.21 * -0.06 -0.11 0.04 0.23 ** -0.08 0.03     -0.05 * 0.04
1+ hybrid property conviction -0.08 -0.19 * -0.11 * -0.13 -0.01 0.15 -0.20 *** 0.13 -0.07 -0.01 -0.12 *** 0.01
1+ probation breach conviction 0.24 *** 0.10     0.04 -0.02 0.06 0.23 ** 0.03 -0.07 0.09 *** 0.07
1+ bail-related conviction 0.13 ** 0.05     -0.02 -0.22 ** 0.02 0.05     0.02 -0.09 *
Legal factor: prior record & current offence type
Both 3+ prior convictions & indictable current conviction 0.03 0.45 *** 0.09 0.46 *** 0.19 *** 0.23 ** 0.13 ** 0.17 * 0.07 0.30 ** 0.06 ** 0.27 ***

Notes:

  • Linear regression was used; roughly similar findings were apparent using logistic regression.

  • * p<.05; ** p<.01; *** p<.001

  • blank cell = the factor was not included in the model because preliminary analysis showed that it was not related to custody when other factors were controlled.

  • The minus sign before the beta coefficient means that the relationship between the independent and dependent variables was negative – e.g., the presence of a bail charge was inversely related to receiving a custody sentence.