National Anti-Drug Strategy Evaluation

1. Introduction

1.1 National Anti-Drug Strategy

The National Anti-Drug Strategy is a horizontal initiative of 12 federal departments and agencies, led by the Department of Justice, with new and reoriented funding Footnote 4, covering activities over a five-year period from 2007/08 to 2011/12. The goal of the Strategy is to contribute to safer and healthier communities through coordinated efforts to prevent use, treat dependency, and reduce production and distribution of illicit drugs. Illicit drugs are defined in the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA) to include opiates, cocaine and cannabis-related substances (including marihuana) as well as synthetic drugs such as ecstasy and methamphetamine. The Strategy encompasses three action plans: Prevention, Treatment and Enforcement:

  • The objectives of the Prevention Action Plan are to prevent youth from using illicit drugs by enhancing their awareness and understanding of the harmful social and health effects of illicit drug use; and to develop and implement community-based interventions and initiatives to prevent illicit drug use.
  • The objective of the Treatment Action Plan is to support effective treatment and rehabilitation systems and services by developing and implementing innovative and collaborative approaches.
  • The objective of the Enforcement Action Plan is to contribute to the disruption of illicit drug operations in a safe manner, particularly targeting criminal organizations.

The Strategy’s action plans are expected to contribute to a reduction in the supply of, and demand for, illicit drugs, which ultimately contributes to safer and healthier communities.

1.2 Purpose and Scope of the Evaluation

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the Strategy, in accordance with the Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat (TBS) requirements set out in the 2009 TBS Directive for the Evaluation Function. The evaluation addresses the relevance and performance (effectiveness, and efficiency and economy) of the Strategy and its three action plans. The scope of the evaluation covers the period from 2007/08 through to 2010/11.

1.3 Structure of the Report

This document contains five chapters, including this introduction (Chapter 1), as follows:

  • Chapter 2 provides an overview of the design and implementation of the Strategy;
  • Chapter 3 summarizes the methodology employed in the evaluation, including methodological limitations and challenges as well as the strategies used to address those challenges;
  • Chapter 4 describes the major findings of the evaluation with respect to the relevance and performance of each of the Prevention, Treatment and Enforcement Action Plans; and
  • Chapter 5 presents the major conclusions, recommendations and management response arising from the evaluation.

The Strategy Logic Model, evaluation questions and evaluation instruments are presented in appendices.

2. Design and Implementation of the Strategy

This chapter provides an overview of the Strategy in terms of its action plans and components, governance structure and expenditures.

2.1 Action Plans and Components

The budget for the Strategy totals approximately $513.4 million including new funding, reoriented funding, and the former Canada’s Drug Strategy (CDS) funding. The budget for the Enforcement Action Plan totals $205.9 million (40% of the overall budget), while the budgets for the treatment and prevention action plans total $190.5 million (37%) and $117 million (23%) respectively. Close to $3.4 million is also allocated for leadership, communication and evaluation of the Strategy. An additional $67.7 million was set aside in a frozen allotment for the four components under the Mandatory Minimum Penalties Footnote 5.

The activities of the Strategy focus on illicit drugs, as defined in the CDSA, including opiates, cocaine and cannabis-related substances (including marihuana), and synthetic drugs such as ecstasy, methamphetamine and the illicit use of pharmaceuticals.

The three action plans encompass 20 components. Table 1 contains the profile of each component identifying the responsible department, five-year budget, major activities and outputs, and key beneficiaries. Of the 12 federal departments and agencies participating in the Strategy, four are involved in more than one component: Health Canada (HC) delivers two components under each of the three action plans and leads the prevention and treatment action plans; the RCMP delivers one component under each of the three action plans; Justice Canada delivers two components under the Treatment Action Plan in addition to being the Strategy lead; and Public Safety Canada (PS) is responsible for one component under the Prevention Action Plan and Enforcement Action Plan, in addition to leading the Enforcement Action Plan. The five largest individual components, in terms of the five-year budget, account for 69% of the total budget. These components include the DTFP ($124.5 million), Marihuana and Clandestine Lab Teams/Proceeds of Crime ($91.4 million), Drug Strategy Community Initiatives Fund (DSCIF) ($55.2 million), Drug Analysis Service ($49.2 million), and NNADAP ($35.5 million).

The primary beneficiaries of the Strategy include young people and their parents, targeted at-risk or vulnerable populations, and the Canadian public. Treatment delivery agencies, educators, health professionals, police and other social service providers, researchers and practitioners are among the Strategy’s secondary beneficiaries, given that the activities conducted under the Strategy facilitate and improve their work. The Strategy also involves a wide range of provincial, national and international stakeholders including governmental and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), academic institutions, communities, private sector corporations and associations, and regulated parties. The stakeholders play various roles in the Strategy including providing services, initiating new programs, conducting research and development, and providing advisory support.

Table 1: Characteristics of the Components of the National Anti-Drug Strategy Footnote 6

Prevention Action Plan
Component Department Total Budget
(2007/08 to 2011/12)
Overview Major Activities and Outputs
(2007/08 to 2010/11)
Key Beneficiaries Sources of Funding
1. Mass Media Campaign HC $29.8 M A federal mass media prevention campaign to discourage youth from using illicit drugs.

Consisted of a mass media campaign with two components, one targeting parents of youth aged 13 to 15 and the other targeting youth aged 13 to 15, using a variety of TV, radio, social media, web and print materials, e.g. website for parents: www.drugprevention.gc.ca and for youth: www.not4me.ca. The name changed to "drugsnot4me" in 2010 and has been part of the nationalantidrugstrategy.gc.ca website.

As of May 2011, baseline and return-to-sample reports were available on the impacts of the parent and youth campaigns. Footnote 7

Youth in general

Parents of young people

Canadian public

New funding under the Strategy
2. Drug Strategy Community Initiatives Fund (DSCIF) HC $55.2 M Funding program that supports national and regional prevention and health promotion projects to discourage illicit drug use among youth. Funded 103 regional and national projects as of 2010/11. Funded projects included one led by the Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse (CCSA) and regional projects that focused on increasing awareness/understanding of healthy lifestyle choices, illicit drugs and their negative consequences, improving capacity (knowledge and skills) to avoid illicit drug use, and increasing engagement of community structures, networks in health, and promotion and prevention efforts to prevent illicit drug use among youth. In 2010/11, some regions (BC, AB, MB/SK, and QC) held regional showcases or knowledge exchange events where funded project proponents were brought together to network and share results and lessons learned. A Cluster Evaluation Baseline Report of DSCIF-funded projects was prepared in March 2011.

Youth in general

At-risk/vulnerable populations

Aboriginal populations

Educators, professionals, police, researchers and related communities of practice

Reoriented funding from the former CDS
3. National Crime Prevention Centre (NCPC) PS $20.0 M Funding in support of evidence-based projects that aim to prevent and reduce substance-related crime among at-risk populations and communities. NCPC's contribution to the Strategy has been funded through reorienting funding from the Crime Prevention Action Fund (CPAF), the Northern and Aboriginal Crime Prevention Fund, the Policing Corrections and Communities Fund, the Research and Knowledge Development Fund, and the Youth Gang Prevention Fund. NCPC identified over 50 Strategy-related projects as of 2010/11. These projects targeted at-risk children aged 7-12 who use substances, youth aged 13-17 who use substances and are at risk or displaying delinquent behaviour, juvenile and adult offenders no longer in correctional supervision who are addicted to substances, and Aboriginal people who are addicted to substances. In 2010, NCPC conducted a pilot data mining exercise to gather information on five projects identified as nearing completion.

Young people contemplating or experimenting with illicit drugs

At-risk/vulnerable populations

Aboriginal populations

Educators, professionals, police, researchers and related communities of practice

Reoriented funding from the National Crime Prevention Strategy.
4. Drugs and Organized Crime Awareness Service (DOCAS) RCMP $12.0 M Supports various initiatives across the country to increase awareness of the nature, extent and consequences of substance use and abuse. Programs include the Aboriginal Shield Program (ASP), Drug Abuse Resistance Education Program (D.A.R.E.), Drug Endangered Children, http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/cycp-cpcj/index-eng.htm (administered by RCMP Community and Aboriginal Policing), Drugs and Sport: The Score, E-Aware, Organized Crime Awareness, Drug Awareness Officers Training, Community Prevention Education Continuum (CPEC), Racing Against Drugs Program, Prevent Alcohol and Risk-related Trauma Youth Program, Keep Straight, and Building Capacity for Positive Youth Development. Footnote 8

Youth in general

Parents of youth

Aboriginal populations

Educators, professionals, police, researchers and related communities

Former CDS funding
Treatment Action Plan
Component Department Total Budget
(2007/08 to 2011/12)
Overview Major Activities and Outputs
(2007/08 to 2010/11)
Key Beneficiaries Sources of Funding
1. Drug Treatment Funding Program (DTFP) HC $124.5 M Footnote 9 Provides financial support to assist provinces and territories strengthen treatment systems, invest in early intervention treatment services for at-risk youth, and focus on high needs areas. Provided funding through two separate components: strengthening treatment systems and support for treatment services. As of 2010/11, 21 projects received funding under the DTFP, with an additional 8 projects approved for funding. Funded projects included a project to deliver critical treatment services and programs in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver, a national project led by the CCSA and other projects across 10 of the 13 provinces and territories. An implementation evaluation of the DTFP was completed in March 2011.

Treatment delivery agencies and services

Health professionals and other related communities of practice

Canadian public

Former CDS funding, new funding under the Strategy
2. National Native Alcohol and Drug Abuse Program (NNADAP) HC $35.5 M Funding provided to improve treatment services for First Nations and Inuit populations with a focus on youth and their families. Key activities included the NNADAP Renewal Process (consisting of an evidence-based review, consultations with regional and community partners, and development and launch of a renewed framework for on-reserve addiction services); the creation of the NNADAP Renewal Leadership Team (a national committee of First Nations service providers, health administrators, Elders, researchers, and other key partners who are guiding the implementation of the renewed framework); treatment centre modernization/re-profiling (to strengthen and expand services with a focus on services for women, youth and families), which has included re-orienting or expanding the programming of 36 treatment centres since 2007; workforce development (strategies and incentives to enhance treatment worker certification and competency ) under which the percentage of certified addiction treatment centre workers rose to 77% (157 of 204) in 2011/12, up from 68% (186 of 272) in 2010/11; and Mental Wellness Team pilot projects (eight pilot projects in First Nations and Inuit communities across Canada).

Targeted at-risk or vulnerable populations

First Nations and Inuit people

Treatment delivery agencies and services

Addiction treatment centre staff and community-based addiction workers

Former CDS funding, new funding under the Strategy
3. Youth Justice Anti-Drug Strategy (YJADS) Justice Canada $6.8 M Funding program to support the development of treatment programs at various stages of the youth justice system to help youth who have drug dependencies and are in conflict with the law. Funded 18 projects in 2010/11, 39 in 2009/10, 11 in 2008/09 and 3 in 2007/08, with some projects receiving funding over several years. Projects included innovative intervention/treatment strategies for youth in conflict with the law, training and knowledge-sharing among criminal justice personnel, youth service providers and health care professionals, and research and evaluation. In 2010/11, Justice Canada held a two-day forum with representatives and researchers from funded projects to explore effective approaches for dealing with youth in conflict with the law and with drug abuse issues.

At-risk/vulnerable populations

Treatment delivery agencies and services

New funding under the Strategy to address illicit drug use under the Youth Justice Fund
4. Drug Treatment Court Funding Program (DTCFP) Justice Canada $16.2 M Funding program to support drug treatment courts (DTCs), including social services to reduce drug use, enhance social stability of drug-addicted offenders, and reduce criminal recidivism. Six DTCs were funded, including one in each of the following cities: Toronto, Vancouver, Edmonton, Winnipeg, Ottawa and Regina. The DTCFP Summative Evaluation was completed in March 2009. Offenders Former CDS funding
5. National Youth Intervention and Diversion Program (NYIDP) RCMP $3.4 M Provide tools and training to front-line members of the RCMP to consider alternatives to charging youth and to refer at-risk youth to community and treatment programs. The Program was piloted in eight sites (Arviat, Nunavut; Prince George, Williams Lake, Surrey Wrap, BC; Grande Prairie, AB; Charlottetown, PEI; Sussex, NB; and Happy Valley/Goose Bay, NL) between 2007/08 and 2010/11. RCMP members were trained on risk and protective factors and in the use of a formal screening tool to identify youth at risk of re-offending. Consultation with community programs, youth workers and provincial family services was conducted to develop protocols and reach agreement on referral procedures. An NYIDP Implementation Review was completed in March 2011. Young offenders contemplating or experimenting with illicit drugs New funding under the Strategy (Funding for this component ended March 31, 2012)
6. Research on Drug Treatment Models CIHR $4.0 M Funding program that supports research on the development, improvement and evaluation of drug treatment models. As of 2010/11, CIHR's Institute of Neurosciences, Mental Health and Addiction (INMHA) had provided funding for 18 grants including 11 Catalyst Grants, 3 Research Team Grants (partially funded under the Strategy), 2 Operating Grants, and 2 Knowledge Synthesis Grants. Examples of research topics include the application of research-based interventions, driving while under drug influence, understanding simultaneous polysubstance use, and non-medical use of prescription opioid analgesics in Canada. The CIHR-INMHA Substance Abuse Treatment and Prevention Initiative Workshop was held in October 2010 in Ottawa. In addition, a report was produced in 2011 on Mapping of Systematic Reviews on prevention, treatment and/or harm reduction for illicit drug use to help CIHR-INMHA identify research gaps and needs.

Treatment delivery agencies and services

Health professionals and other related communities of practice across the treatment continuum

Canadian public

New funding under the Strategy
Enforcement Action Plan
Component Department Total Budget
(2007/08 to 2011/12)
Overview Major Activities and Outputs
(2007/08 to 2010/11)
Key Beneficiaries Sources of Funding
1. National Coordination of Efforts to Improve Intelligence, Knowledge Management, Research, and Evaluation PS $4.0 M Provides national horizontal policy coordination to improve intelligence, knowledge management, research, and evaluation pertaining to illicit drug issues. Provided leadership across the Enforcement Action Plan, held consultations, participated in the Synthetic Drug Initiative meetings, hosted workshops nationally including the Emerging Issues in Drug Enforcement Workshop in Montreal in November 2010 and the Illicit Use of Pharmaceuticals Workshop in Vancouver in June 2011, and coordinated initiatives internationally to identify new issues and encourage dialogue among groups that are not normally involved in enforcement discussions. PS also contributed to innovative projects and research (e.g. Intelligence-led Anti-Gang Strategy led by the Ottawa Police Service).

Strategy and enforcement partners

Researchers, health professionals and other related communities of practice across the enforcement continuum

Canadian public

Former CDS, new funding under the Strategy
2. Prosecution and Prosecution-related Services ODPP $9.9 M Provides prosecution and prosecution-related services to support RCMP investigations and charges.

Dedicated 25 in-house full-time equivalent employees (FTEs), nationally distributed, to Strategy activities in 2010/11 (the number dedicated to the Strategy increased from 9.5 FTEs 2009/10 and 7.5 in 2008/09) to deal with incremental prosecutions and related workload generated by new RCMP investigative and criminal intelligence officers as well as to disseminate information to Crown Prosecutors on new legislation pertaining to illicit drugs.

Enforcement agencies (e.g. RCMP)

Canadian public

New funding under the Strategy
3. Office of Controlled Substances (OCS) HC $26.0 M Operates an inspection program that aims to control and monitor controlled substances and precursor chemicals. Expanded its inspection program by hiring two new inspectors in Alberta and four in Ontario in 2007/08, to monitor movement of controlled substances and precursor chemicals to prevent their diversion to the illicit drug market. Carried out inspections of dealers licensed under the Precursor Control Regulations, Narcotic Control Regulations, Parts G and J of the Food and Drug Regulations and the Benzodiazepines and Other Targeted Substances Regulations, as well as other security regulations. OCS also enhanced communication with enforcement agencies.

Enforcement agencies (e.g. RCMP)

Landlords, investors, and property managers

Legitimate chemical and pharmaceutical industry

Canadian public

Former CDS, new funding under the Strategy
4. Drug Analysis Service (DAS) HC $49.2 M Provides scientific advice, trains police and border officers in safe dismantling of drug labs, analyzes drugs and provides expert testimony. Allocated two FTEs to the Toronto lab, in 2007/08, to analyze seized materials, provide training to law enforcement officers to increase awareness of trends and safety in dismantling clandestine labs, aid in investigations of illicit drug operations to ensure they are dismantled in a safe manner and provide expert testimony in court. In 2010/11, DAS completed the reorganization of the national office following the regional transformation, streamlined its processes to become more efficient and met with prosecutors and police forces to discuss options to control the workload.

Enforcement agencies (e.g. RCMP)

Prosecution agencies (e.g. ODPP)

Canadian public

Former CDS, new funding under the Strategy
5. Marihuana and Clandestine Lab Teams/Proceeds of Crime RCMP $91.4 M Undertakes investigations of criminal activities related to marihuana grow-ops (MGOs) and Clandestine Drug Laboratories (Clan Labs). Dedicated additional resources augmented existing Clan Lab and MGO teams across Canada, to address related areas of drug enforcement, criminal intelligence, technical support, proceeds of crime, liaison officers and internal services, to enforce relevant legislation. RCMP teams also undertook training to raise their awareness of synthetic drugs and precursor chemical issues and of how to safely dismantle illicit drug operations. Working groups were formed, including one with multiple federal departments to interface on the Synthetic Drug Initiative. The Initiative was introduced in 2009 and is designed to eliminate the production and distribution of illegal synthetic drugs in Canada and target precursor chemical smuggling at Canada's borders. The RCMP engaged in a Joint Forces Operation with the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) Intelligence Directorate to enhance intelligence-sharing on the smuggling of precursor chemicals into Canada.

Federal partners (e.g. CBSA)

Enforcement agencies

Canadian public

Former CDS, new funding under the Strategy
6. Intelligence Development and Field Support Division, Analysis and Scientific Services CBSA $12.7 M Manages the flow of goods and people coming into Canada, including preventing cross-border smuggling of domestic marihuana and trade in other illicit drugs and precursor chemicals. Enhanced human resources and acquired equipment to address cross-border smuggling of domestic marihuana and trade in other illicit drugs and precursor chemicals, including funding 11 FTEs in precursor chemical intelligence across all eight regions, 8 FTE lab positions, and 3 FTEs dedicated to Strategy-related criminal investigations as of 2010/11. In October 2010, CBSA hosted a Precursor and Synthetic Drug Workshop bringing together domestic and international partners. Also, a CBSA Headquarters Intelligence-led Joint Forces Operation with the RCMP was developed in support of the CBSA Precursor Chemical Diversion Project and the RCMP Synthetic Drug Initiative. CBSA is a vital partner in the Synthetic Drug Initiative.

Enforcement agencies (e.g. RCMP)

Legitimate chemical industry

Canadian public

New funding under the Strategy
7. Special Enforcement Program CRA $4.2 M Undertakes audits of individuals and organizations suspected of criminal activities. Dedicated six FTEs, two in each of the high-risk tax service offices (i.e. Montreal, Toronto, and Vancouver) to perform audits of persons known or suspected of deriving income earned from marihuana and synthetic drug production and distribution operations, and to reassess tax dollars owing, based on leads received from the RCMP, the Financial Transactions Reports Analysis Centre of Canada (FINTRAC), as well as provincial and municipal police.

Enforcement agencies (e.g. RCMP)

Canadian public

New funding under the Strategy
8. Forensic Accounting Management Group (FAMG) PWGSC $1.6 M Provides forensic accounting services to law enforcement about specific investigations, responding to RCMP demand. As of 2010/11, dedicated two FTEs to participate in and support Integrated Proceeds of Crime (IPOC) investigations and prosecutions related to the production and distribution and possession of illicit drugs, as well as to MGOs and clandestine laboratories, to act as an expert witness in criminal investigations, and to produce forensic accounting reports which explain how money is linked to the criminal activity that may be submitted as evidence in prosecutions.

Enforcement agencies (e.g. RCMP)

Canadian public

New funding under the Strategy
9. Financial Intelligence FINTRAC $2.5 M Provides financial intelligence to support RCMP investigations and informs the RCMP of suspicious activity based on reports from financial industry. Dedicated six FTEs to support Strategy files as of 2010/11, providing financial intelligence that supports law enforcement in investigations and prosecutions of persons who handle money generated by the production and distribution of illicit drugs.

Enforcement agencies (e.g. RCMP)

Canadian public

New funding under the Strategy
10. Annual Contributions to United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and Organization of American States - Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (OAS-CICAD) DFAIT $4.5 M Provides contributions to multilateral development organizations in order to develop global capacity to combat illicit drug production and trade. Provided financial assistance to the UNODC in fulfilling its mandate to build capacity in the fight against drugs and international crime at the global level, with a particular focus on the Americas; and to the OAS-CICAD.

Enforcement agencies (e.g. RCMP)

Federal partners (e.g. PS)

International partners (e.g. OAS-CICAD and UNODC)

Enforcement agencies and governments in developing countries

Canadian public

Former CDS

2.2 Governance

The governance structure of the Strategy consists of the Assistant Deputy Minister Steering Committee (ADMSC) and four working groups on prevention and treatment, enforcement, policy and performance, and communications. Meeting about once a year, the ADMSC oversees implementation of the Strategy, making decisions necessary to advance the initiative, where required, and ensuring appropriate and timely outcomes for the initiative as well as accountability in the expenditure of initiative resources. The ADMSC also prepares questions for the consideration of Deputy Ministers, where appropriate. The Committee is chaired by Justice Canada and also includes Assistant Deputy Ministers (as appropriate) from HC, PS, RCMP, Correctional Service of Canada (CSC), Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions (ODPP), CBSA, Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada (DFAIT) and Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) as well as the Privy Council Office of Canada (PCO) and the TBS.

Four Director General-level working groups oversee the development and implementation of various aspects of the Strategy and report to the ADMSC. As noted above and in Table 2, not all Strategy partners are involved in the ADMSC or the Policy and Performance Working Group. It is also noted that other departments who are not funded through the Strategy are members of these groups.

Table 2: Working Group Structure of the Strategy - National Anti-Drug Strategy Working Group Structure and Areas of Responsibility

National Anti-Drug Strategy Working Group Structure and Areas of Responsibility
Working Group Chair Departments Represented Primary Area of Responsibility Average Number of Meetings
Prevention and Treatment Health Canada
  • HC
  • PS
  • Justice
  • RCMP
  • CSC
  • DFAIT
  • PHAC
  • CIHR
Oversees the development and implementation of the prevention and treatment action plans 2-3 meetings/year
Enforcement Public Safety Canada
  • PS
  • RCMP
  • CBSA
  • CSC
  • PBC
  • ODPP
  • Justice
  • HC
  • DFAIT
  • CRA
  • PWGSC
  • FINTRAC
Oversees the development and implementation of the Enforcement Action Plan. 1-2 meetings/year
Policy and Performance Justice Canada
  • Justice
  • HC
  • PS
  • RCMP
  • CSC
  • ODPP
  • CBSA
  • DFAIT
  • PCO
  • TBS
  • AANDC
Oversees the development and articulation of policy directions and outcomes for the Strategy and the work of the Sub-committee on Evaluation and Reporting (SER). 4 meetings/year
Communications Justice Canada
  • Justice
  • HC
  • PS
  • RCMP
  • CBSA
  • CSC
  • DFAIT
  • PCO
Oversees communication of the Strategy, including making decisions necessary to advance communication of the initiative and ensuring coordination of communication efforts and exchange of information by all partners. 1-3 meetings/year

In addition to the Directors General working groups, several sub-groups were developed to support Strategy coordination efforts. The SER, which has representatives from all partners, is responsible for the implementation and management of the reporting and evaluation activities for the Strategy. The Prevention and Treatment Sub-committee on Federal Continuum of Responses was established in 2008/09 as a horizontal working group that identifies and maps a common continuum of programs and services across federal departments to support the prevention and treatment objectives of the Strategy. The Sub-committee was developed, in part, as a result of recommendations made during the Implementation Evaluation of the Strategy Footnote 10. The Enforcement Action Plan Working Group was also supplemented by meetings of several sub-groups, including quarterly meetings of the RCMP-led Synthetic Drug Initiative (SDI) and the creation of a sub-group in 2010 to discuss possible changes to the regime governing storage and disposition of offence-related property. A sub-group Footnote 11 of the Communications Working Group, with advisors from the Departments of Justice, Health, PS, RCMP, CBSA and CSC met six to eight times per year. The sub-group of Communication Officers played a supporting role to ensure regular collaboration on and coordination of Strategy communication activities and ensured that all communications were consistent, complementary and positioned in support of the Strategy.

The governance structure of the Strategy is supported by the Youth Justice and Strategic Initiatives Section, Department of Justice, which leads the Strategy, and is therefore responsible for collecting all information from the other departments on Strategy implementation. Strategy partners report annually through the Justice Canada Departmental Performance Report.

2.3 Expenditures

Table 3 compares the budgeted and the actual spending under each of the components for the first four years since the Strategy was initiated (i.e. from 2007/08 to 2010/11) Footnote 12.

Table 3: Strategy Expenditures from 2007/08 to 2010/11 Footnote 13
Component Department 2007/08 to 2010/11
Planned Spending
($ Millions)
Actual Spending
($ Millions)
Prevention Action Plan
1 Mass Media Campaign HC $23.0 $21.1
2 Drug Strategy Community Initiatives Fund HC $46.8 $39.9
3 National Crime Prevention Centre multiple funds (including CPAF) PS $20.6 $28.8
4 Drugs and Organized Crime Awareness Service RCMP $12.0 $8.0
Total $102.4 $97.8
Treatment Action Plan
1 Drug Treatment Funding Program HC $109.0 $43.9
2 National Native Alcohol and Drug Abuse Program HC $25.1 $25.5
3 Youth Justice Anti-Drug Strategy Justice $5.3 $3.7
4 Drug Treatment Court Funding Program Justice $14.7 Footnote 14 $14.7
5 National Youth Intervention and Diversion Program Footnote 15 RCMP $2.7 $1.8
6 Research on Drug Treatment Models CIHR $3.1 $1.7
Total $159.9 $91.3
Enforcement Action Plan
1 National Coordination of Efforts to Improve Intelligence, Knowledge Management, Research, and Evaluation PS $3.2 $2.8
2 Prosecution and Prosecution-related Services ODPP $6.0 $6.6
3 Office of Controlled Substances HC $12.4 $9.7
4 Drug Analysis Service HC $38.3 Footnote 16 $36.1
5 Marihuana and Clandestine Lab Teams/Proceeds of Crime RCMP $64.4 $50.0
6 Intelligence Development and Field Support Division, Analysis and Scientific Services CBSA $8.9 $7.8
7 Special Enforcement Program CRA $3.2 $2.7
8 Forensic Accounting Management Group PWGSC $1.0 $1.0
9 Financial Intelligence FINTRAC $1.8 $1.6
10 Annual Contributions to UNODC and CICAD DFAIT $3.6 $3.6
Total $142.8 $121.9
GRAND TOTAL $405.1 $311.0

As indicated, some funding was re-profiled or lapsed under various components of the Strategy, particularly the DTFP which took longer than expected to negotiate agreements with the provincial and territorial governments. Figure 1 compares the annual planned and actual spending of the Strategy during the first four years of implementation. The budget increased during each of the first four years, as components moved towards full implementation. However, slower than expected implementation of certain new components (particularly the DTFP) meant that the percentage of the planned budget which was actually expended decreased from 86% in the first year to 56% in the second year, before increasing to 73% in 2009/10 and 91% in 2010/11. Over the four-year period, actual spending was equal to 77% of planned spending.

Figure 1: Strategy Planned and Actual Spending from 2007/08 to 2010/11 ($ Millions) Footnote 17

Figure 1: Strategy Planned and Actual Spending from 2007/08 to 2010/11 ($ Millions)

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