Mandatory Minimum Penalties: Their Effects on Crime, Sentencing Disparities, and Justice System Expenditures

APPENDIX A: Mandatory Minimum Penalties in the 2001 Criminal Code

Offence Section Minimum Maximum
Driving while impaired s. 253(a) 14 days[1] 5 years[2]
Blood alcohol over .08 s. 253(b) 14 days[3] 5 years[4]
Fail/refuse to provide breath sample s. 254(5) 14 days[5] 5 years[6]
Betting, pool-selling, book-making s. 202 14 days[7] 2 years
Placing bets on behalf of others s. 203 14 days[8] 2 years
High treason s. 47(1) Life[9] Life
First degree murder s. 231(1)-(6.1) Life[10] Life
Second degree murder s. 231(7) Life[11] Life
Living off avails of child prostitution s. 212(2.1) 5 years 14 years
Using a firearm during commission of offence s. 85(1) 1 year[12] 14 years
Using imitation firearm during offence s. 85(2) 1 year[13] 14 years
Criminal negligence causing death – Firearm s. 220(a) 4 years Life
Manslaughter – Firearm s. 236(a) 4 years Life
Attempted murder – Firearm s. 239 4 years Life
Causing bodily harm with intent – Firearm s. 244 4 years 14 years
Sexual assault – Firearm s. 272(1) 4 years 14 years
Aggravated sexual assault – Firearm s. 273(1) 4 years 14 years
Kidnapping – Firearm s. 279(1) 4 years Life
Hostage taking – Firearm s. 279.1(1) 4 years Life
Robbery – Firearm s. 344 4 years Life
Extortion – Firearm s. 346(1.1) 4 years Life
Possession of firearm knowing it is unauthorized s. 92(1) 1 year[14] 10 years
Possession of weapon/device/ammunition knowing its possession is unauthorized s. 92(2) 1 year[15] 10 years
Possession of prohibited/restricted firearm with ammunition s. 95(1) 1 year[16] 10 years
Possession of weapon obtained by commission of an offence s. 96(1) 1 year[17] 10 years
Weapons trafficking s. 99(1) 1 year 10 years
Possession for purpose of weapons trafficking s. 100(1) 1 year 10 years
Making weapon into automatic fire s. 102(1) 1 year[18] 10 years
Importing/Exporting firearm/prohibited weapon/ restricted weapon/prohibited device or prohibited ammunition s. 103(1) 1 year 10 years

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