A Typology of Profit-Driven Crimes

2. The Typology (continued)

2. The Typology (continued)

Table 2: Predatory Crimes
Victims :
Private Citizens Business Institutions Public Sector
Counterfeit Payment Cards Telecommunications Theft Counterfeit Currencies
Auto Theft Bankruptcy Fraud Counterfeit Passports
Extortion Maritime Fraud Social Security Fraud
Involuntary Servitude Bank Fraud Poaching
Kidnapping Robbery Income Tax Evasion
Sex Slavery Break & Enter Illegal Immigration
Theft of Cultural Property Arson Government Contract Fraud
Stock Fraud Insurance Fraud
Prime Investment Scheme Theft of Intellectual Property
Embezzlement

Table 3: Market Based Crimes
Evasion of :
Regulations Taxes Prohibitions
Quota Violations Bootleg Alcohol Solicitation
CFC Regulations Cigarette Smuggling Sale of Stolen Goods
Art & Antiquities Smuggling Jewellery Excise Drug Trafficking
Loan-Sharking Bootleg Fuel Firearm Trafficking
Firearm Trafficking Alien Smuggling
Sale of Out of Season Game/Stock Endangered Species Trafficking
Money Laundering
Child Pornography
Gaming and Betting
Body Parts Trafficking

Table 4: Commercial Crimes
At the expense of :
Suppliers/Investors Customers Broader Society
Bankruptcy Fraud Telemarketing Fraud Transportation of Dangerous Goods
Insider Trading Consumer Fraud Storage of Dangerous Goods
Stock Fraud Pyramid Schemes
False Invoices Advanced Fee on Guaranteed Loan
Price Fixing
Theft of Intellectual Property
Bribery

To run a further test of the viability of the typology, nine cases were examined in-depth, three from each category, and within those three categories, one each from the three identified subcategories. The major criteria applied to each were the following:

  • Was the main mechanism in transferring value force, free-market exchange, or fraud?
  • Did the transfer involve redistribution of wealth, creation of new income, or redistribution of income?
  • Did the transaction take place in a non-business (or fake business), underground network, or legitimate business context?
  • Was the main means of transfer of value property, cash, or bank instruments? Although these criteria sometimes overlap, each emphasizes a different aspect of the offence. The more of these criteria that can be applied, the less the range of ambiguity. 
Choice of Cases Characteristics
(1) Predatory Crimes Victimizing:
a) payment card fraud private citizens
b) bank fraud business institutions
c) currency counterfeiting public sector
(2) Market-Based Evading:
a) loan-sharking regulations (terms)
b) CFC smuggling taxes
c) traffic in endangered species prohibitions
(3) Commercial: Involving
a) fraudulent bankruptcy fraud against investors or suppliers
b) telemarketing scams deception against customers
c) toxic waste dumping illegal cost reduction at third party expense
12 Research and Statistics Division  
  • Where it seems that, in the great majority of instances, an offence should be in one category rather than another, it is marked (x).
  • Where an offence seems equally at home in two or more, it is indicated (x) in all relevant categories.
  • Where a traditional category does not seem to suffice to capture all of the component acts of a particular offence, a second may be added (e.g., prostitution is listed separately from sex slavery in the above tables).
  • Where there is a good chance it could fall into more than one category, the most probable is indicated (x), with a (?) to show other possibilities.

The results are summarized in the following four tables (tables 5 to 8):

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