A Typology of Profit-Driven Crimes

2.The Typology (continued)

2. The Typology (continued)

Table 5: Main Mechanism

Force/Deception
Force Free-Market Exchange Fraud
Payment Card Fraud X
Bank Fraud X
Currency Counterfeiting X

Market Based
Force Free-Market Exchange Fraud
Bear Gall Bladder Trade X
Loan-Sharking X
CFC Trafficking X

Business Fraud
Force Free-Market Exchange Fraud
Fraudulent Bankruptcy X
Telemarketing Fraud X
Illegal Toxic Waste Dumping X


Table 6: Nature of Transfer

Force/Deception
Redistribution of Wealth Creation of New Income Redistribution of Income
Payment Card Fraud X
Bank Fraud X
Currency Counterfeiting X

Market Based
Redistribution of Wealth Creation of New Income Redistribution of Income
Bear Gall Bladder Trade X
Loan-Sharking X X X
CFC Trafficking X

Business Fraud
Redistribution of Wealth Creation of New Income Redistribution of Income
Fraudulent Bankruptcy ? ?
Telemarketing Fraud X X
Illegal Toxic Waste Dumping


Table 7: Institutional Context

Force/Deception
Non or Fake Business Underground Network Legitimate Business
Payment Card Fraud x
Bank Fraud x
Currency Counterfeiting x

Market Based
Non or Fake Business Underground Network Legitimate Business
Bear Gall Bladder Trade x
Loan-Sharking x
CFC Trafficking x

Business Fraud
Non or Fake Business Underground Network Legitimate Business
Fraudulent Bankruptcy x
Telemarketing Fraud x
Illegal Toxic Waste Dumping X


Table 8: Means of Payment / Transfer of Value

Force/Deception
Cash Bank Instruments Force/Deception
Payment Card Fraud x x x
Bank Fraud x
Currency Counterfeiting x

Market Based
Cash Bank Instruments Force/Deception
Bear Gall Bladder Trade x
Loan-Sharking x
CFC Trafficking x

Business Fraud
Cash Bank Instruments Force/Deception
Fraudulent Bankruptcy x
Telemarketing Fraud x
Illegal Toxic Waste Dumping x

In the next section, each of these nine cases is subjected to closer examination.

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