Gap Analysis of Research Literature on Issues Related to Street-Involved Youth
Adams, Gerald R., Thomas Gullotta, and Mary Anne Clancy (1999). Homeless adolescents: a descriptive study of similarities and differences between runaways and throwaways. In Richard M. Lerner and Christine M. Ohannessian, eds., Risks and Problem Behaviours in Adolescence. New York: Garland.
Anderson, J., T. Freese and Julia Pennebridge (1994). "Sexual risk behavior and condom use among street youth in Hollywood." Family Planning Perspectives 26:22-25.
Antoniades, Margarita and Valerie Tarasuk (1998). "A survey of food problems experienced by Toronto street youth." Canadian Journal of Public Health 89(6):371-375.
Athey, J. (1991). HIV infection and homeless adolescents. Child Welfare 70(5):517-528.
Ayerst, Sandra L. (1999). "Depression and stress in street youth." Adolescence 34(135): 567-575.
Baron, Stephen W. (1999). "Street youths and substance use: the role of background, street lifestyle, and economic factors." Youth and Society 31(1):3-26.
(1997). "Canadian male street skinheads: street gang or street terrorists?" Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 34(2):125-154.
(1995). Serious offenders. In James Creechan and Robert A. Silverman, eds., Canadian Delinquency. Toronto: Prentice-Hall.
Baron, Stephen W. and Timothy F. Hartnagel (1998). "Street youth and criminal violence." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 35(2):166-192.
(1997). "Attributions, affect and crime: street youths' reactions to unemployment." Criminology 35:409-434.
Bass, Deborah (1992). Helping vulnerable youths: runaway and homeless adolescents in the United States. Washington, DC: NASW Press.
Bassuk, E.L. and L. Rosenberg (1990). "Psychosocial characteristics of homeless children and children with homes." Pediatrics 85:257-286.
Bernard, Thomas J. (1990). "Angry aggression among the 'truly disadvantaged.'" Criminology 28:73-95.
Berrill, K.T. (1990). "Anti-gay violence and victimization in the United States: an overview." Journal of Interpersonal Violence 5(3)4-24.
Blau, Joel (1992). The Visible Poor: Homelessness in the United States. New York: Oxford University Press.
Booth, Robert E., Yiming Zhang and Carol F. Kwiatkowski (1999). "The challenge of changing drug and sex risk behaviors of runaway and homeless adolescents." Child Abuse and Neglect 23(12):1295-1306.
Booth, Robert E. and Yiming Zhang (1996). "Severe aggression and related conduct problems among runaway and homeless adolescents." Psychiatric Services 47:75-80.
Bourgois, Philippe (1995). In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in El Barrio. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bradford, Marnetta Shetler (1995). "Health concerns and prevalence of abuse and sexual activity in adolescents at a runaway shelter." Applied Nursing Research 8(4):187-190.
Brannigan, Augustine and Tullio Caputo (1993). Studying Runaways and Street Youth in Canada: Conceptual and Research Design Issues. Ottawa: Solicitor General Canada.
Busen, Nacy H. and Bettina Beech (1997). "A collaborative model for community-based health care screening of homeless adolescents." Journal of Professional Nursing 13(5):316-324.
Canadian Nurse (2000). "Study of Toronto street youth looks at treatment and prevention of HIV." Canadian Nurse, Vol. 96(2):14
Caputo, Tullio and Katherine Kelly (1997). Police Perceptions of Current Responses to Youth Crime. Report No. 1997-03. Ottawa: Solicitor General Canada, Ministry Secretariat. Policing and Law Enforcement Directorate.
Caputo, Tullio, R. Weiler, and Katherine Kelly (1994a). Phase II of the Runaways and Street Youth Project: General Introduction and Overview. Ottawa: Solicitor General Canada, Ministry Secretariat, Police Policy and Research Division.
(1994b). Phase II of the Runaways and Street Youth Project: The Ottawa Case Study. Final Report No. 1994-11. Ottawa: Solicitor General Canada, Ministry Secretariat, Police Policy and Research Division.
(1994c). Phase II of the Runaways and Street Youth Project: The Saskatoon Case Study. Final Report No. 1994-12. Ottawa: Solicitor General Canada, Ministry Secretariat, Police Policy and Research Division.
Caputo, Tullio and Colleen Ryan (1991). The Police Response to Youth at Risk. Report No. 1991-08. Ottawa: Solicitor General Canada, Ministry Secretariat, Police Policy and Research Division.
Caton, C.L.M. (1990). The epidemiology of homelessness. In C.L.M. Caton, ed., Homeless in America. Pp. 19-35. New York: Oxford University Press.
Cauce, Ana Marie, M. Paradise, et al. (1998). Homeless youth in Seattle: youth characteristics, mental health needs, and intensive case management. In M. Epstein, K. Kutash, and Duchnowski, editors/ Outcomes for Children and Youth with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders and Their Families. Austin: Pro-Ed.
Cauce, Ana Marie, C.J. Morgan, et al. (1994). Effectiveness of intensive case management for homeless adolescents: results of a three-month follow-up. Journal of Emotional Behavior Disorders 2:219-227.
Cauce, Ana Marie, C.J. Morgan, S. D. Shantinath, et al. (1993). Intensive case management for homeless youth: a description of a study in progress. Community Psychology 26:32-34.
Chand, Manjit K. and Lisa B. Thompson (1997). You Have Heard This Before: Street-involved Youth and the Service Gaps. Vancouver: Interministerial Street Children's Committee, City of Vancouver Social Planning Department.
City of Toronto and P.R.W. Kendall (1994). Profile of Youth Health in Toronto. Toronto: City of Toronto Department of Public Health.
Clatts, Michael, D.J. Hillman, et al. (2000). Lives in the balance: an ethnographic profile of homeless youth in New York City. In J. Bluestein and C. Levine, eds., Medical Decision-Making for Adolescents Who Are Alone. New York: Pergammon Press.
Clatts, Michael and W. Rees Davis (1999). "A demographic and behavior profile of homeless youth in New York City: implications for AIDS outreach and prevention." Medical Anthropology Quarterly 13(3):365-374.
Clatts, Michael, W. Rees Davis, et al. (1998). "Correlates and distribution of HIV risk behaviors among homeless youths in New York City: implications for prevention and policy." Child Welfare 77(2):195-207.
Clatts, Michael, J. Sotheran, et al. (1997). Needs Assessment: Services and Housing for New York City's Homeless Street Youth with HIV/AIDS. Final Report submitted to the Mayor's Office for AIDS Policy Coordination. New York: Mayor's Office.
Clatts, Michael, W. Rees Davis, and A. Atillasoy (1995). "Hitting a moving target: the use of ethnographic methods in the evaluation of AIDS outreach programs for homeless youth in NYC." Qualitative Methods in Drug Abuse and HIV Research. NIDA Research Monograph 157:117-135.
Clements, K., A. Gleghorn, et al. (1997). A risk profile of street youth in northern California: implications for gender-specific human immunodeficiency virus prevention." Journal of Adolescent Health 20:343-353.
Community Social Planning Council of Toronto (1998). Surviving the Street: Street Youth and Squeegeeing in Toronto. Toronto: The Council.
Crowe, C. and K. Hardill (1993). Nursing research and political change: the street health report. Canadian Nurse 89:21-24.
D'Angelo, L.J., P.R. Getson, et al. (1991). "Human immunodeficiency virus infection in urban adolescents: can we predict who is at risk?" Pediatrics 88:982-986.
Dadds, Mark R., David Braddock, et al. (1993). "Personal and family distress in homeless adolescents." Community Mental Health Journal 29(5):413-422.
Deisher, R. and W. Rogers (1991). "The medical care of street youth." Journal of Adolescent Health Care 12:500-503.
DeMont, John (1996). "Hangout to call their own." Maclean's 109(27):42-3.
Deziel, Shanda and Brenda Branswell (1999). "The anguish of the street." Maclean's 112(34): 38-41.
Dietz, P. (1991). Access to Health Care for Runaway and Homeless Youth: Summary Report. Washington, DC: National Association of Community Health Centers and National Network of Runaway Youth Services.
Embry, Lara E., Ann Vander Stoep, et al. (2000). "Risk factors for homelessness in adolescents released from psychiatric residential treatment." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 39(10):1293-1299.
English, Nora D. and Leona M. English (1999). "A pro-active approach to youth who run." Brief communication. Child Abuse and Neglect 23(7):693-698.
Ensign, Jo (2001). "The health of shelter-based foster youth." Public Health Nursing 18(1):19-23.
Ensign, Jo and Joel Gittelsohn (1998). "Health and access to care: perspectives of homeless youth in Baltimore City, U.S.A." Social Science and Medicine 47(12):2087-2099.
Ensign, Jo and J. Santelli (1998). "Health status and access to care: comparison of adolescents at a school-based health clinic with homeless adolescents." Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 151:817-823.
(1997). Shelter-based homeless youth: health and access to care. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 151(8):817-823.
Erickson, Patricia G. (1997). "Reducing the harm of adolescent substance use." Journal of the Canadian Medical Association 156(10):1397-1399.
Finkelhor, D., G. Hotaling, and A. Sedlak (1990). Missing, abducted, runaway and throwaway children in America. First Report: Numbers and Characteristics: National Incidence Studies. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Office of Justice Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.
Fitzgerald, Michael D. (1995). "Homeless youths and the child welfare system: implications for policy and service." Child Welfare 74(3):717-730.
Forst, M.L. (1994). "Sexual risk profiles of delinquent and homeless youths." Journal of Community Health 19:101-114.
Fox, S.J., R.J. Barrnett, and H.R. Bird (1990). "Psychopathology and developmental delay in homeless children: a pilot study." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 29:732-735.
Franz, Natalie and Colleen Poon (1997). AIDS-Related Risk Behaviour in B.C. Youth: A Multicultural perspective. Burnaby: McCreary Centre Society.
Gaetz, S. and J. Lee (1994). Street Youth and Oral Health. Toronto: Shout Clinic and the City of Toronto Department of Public Health.
Gelberg, L., L.S. Linn, and S. A. Mayer-Oakes (1990). Differences in health status between older and younger homeless adults. Journal of the American Geriatric Society 38:1220-1229.
Goldman, Brian (1988). "Health of Toronto's street kids disturbing, study reveals." Canadian Medical Association Journal 138:1041-1043.
Goodman, E. and J. Berecochea (1994). "Predictors of HIV testing among runaway and homeless adolescents." Journal of Adolescent Health Care 15(7):566-572.
Greenblatt, M. and M.J. Robertson (1993). "Life-styles, adaptive strategies, and sexual behaviors of homeless adolescents." Hospital and Community Psychiatry 44(12):1177-1180.
Greene, Jody M., Susan T. Ennett and Christopher L. Ringwalt (1999). "Prevalence and correlates of survival sex among runaway and homeless youth." American Journal of Public Health 89(9):1406-1409.
Greene, Jody M. and Christopher L. Ringwalt (1998). "Pregnancy among three national samples of runaway and homeless youth." Journal of Adolescent Health 23(6):370-377.
(1997). "Substance use among runaway and homeless youth in three national samples." American Journal of Public Health 87(2):229-235.
Greene, Jody M., et al. (1995). Youth with Runaway, Throwaway, and Homeless Experience: Prevalence, Drug use, and Other At-Risk Behaviors. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services, Administration on Children, Youth and Families.
Gruneberg, Jeffrey and Paula F. Eagle (1990). "Shelterization: how the homeless adapt to shelter living." Hospital and Community Psychiatry 41(5):521-525.
Hagan, John and Bill McCarthy (1997). Mean Streets: Youth Crime and Homelessness. New York: Cambridge University Press.
(1995). "Getting into street crime: the structure and process of criminal embeddedness." Social Science Research 24:63-95.
(1994). Double jeopardy: the abuse and punishment of homeless youth. In G.S. Bridges and M. Myers, editors. Inequality, Crime, and Social Control. Pp. 195-211. Boulder: Westview.
Haley, Nancy, Elise Roy, et al. (1998). "Hepatitis B vaccination outreach project for street youth in Montreal." Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, Vol. 7(4):331-338.
Haynie, Denise L., Tonja Nansel, et al. (2001). "Bullies, victims, and bully/ victims." Journal of Early Adolescence 21(1):29-49.
Health Canada, Office of Alcohol, Drugs and Dependency Issues (1997). Meeting the Needs of Youth-at-Risk in Canada: Learnings from a National Community Development Project. Ottawa: Office of Alcohol, Drugs and Dependency Issues.
Hendry, Chris (2000). "Rural teens produce harm reduction magazine." Journal of Addiction and Mental Health 2(2):1-3.
Herschberger, Scott L. and Anthony R. D'Augelli (1995). "The impact of victimization on the mental health and suicidality of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths." Developmental Psychology 31(1):65-74.
Hier, Sally J., Paula J. Korboot, and Robert D. Schweitzer (1990). "Social adjustment and symptomatology in two types of homeless adolescents: runaways and throwaways." Adolescence 25(100):761-771).
Hoyt, Dan R., Kimberly Ryan, and Ana Mari Cauce (1999). "Personal victimization in a high-risk environment: homeless and runaway adolescents." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 36(4):371-392.
Hunter, Joyce (1990)." Violence against lesbian and gay male youths." Journal of Interpersonal Violence 5:295-300.
Hwang, Stephen W. (2001). "Homelessness and health." Canadian Medical Association Journal 164(2):229-233.
Inciardi, James A., Ruth Horowitz, and Anne E. Pottieger (1993). Street Kids, Street Drugs, Street Crime. Belmont: Wadsworth.
Janus, M.D., F.X. Archambault, et al. (1995). "Physical abuse in Canadian run-away adolescents." Child Abuse and Neglect 19(4):433-447.
Johnson, T.P., J.R. Aschkenasy, et al. (1996). Self-reported risk factors for AIDS among homeless youth." AIDS Education Preview 8:308-322.
Karabanow, Jeffrey (1999). "When caring is not enough: emotional labor and youth shelter workers." Social Service Review 73(3):340-357.
Katz, M.B. (1990). The Undeserving Poor: From the War on Poverty to the War on Welfare. New York: Pantheon Books.
Kaufman, Jeanne G. and Cathy Spatz Widom (1999). "Childhood victimization, running away, and delinquency." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 36(4):347-370.
Kelly, Peter (2000). The dangerousness of youth-at-risk: the possibilities of surveillance and intervention in uncertain times. Journal of Adolescence 23(4):463-476.
Kennedy, Leslie W. and Stephen W. Baron (1993). "Routine activities and a sub-culture of violence.: a study of violence on the street." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 30:88-113.
Kennedy, Leslie W. and David R. Forde (1990). "Risky lifestyles and dangerous results: routine activities and exposure to crime." Sociology and Social Research 74:208-211.
(1990). "Routine activities and crime: an analysis of victimization in Canada." Criminology 28:137-152.
Kennedy, M.R. (1991). "Homeless and runaway youth mental health issues: no access to the system." Journal of Adolescent health 12:576-579.
Kipke, Michele D., Raymond Palmer, et al. (1997). "Homeless youths' descriptions of their parents child-rearing practices." Youth and Society 28(4):415-431.
Kipke, Michele D., Jennifer B. Unger, et al. (1997). "Street youth, their peer group affiliation and differences according to residential status, subsistence patterns, and use of services." Adolescence 32(127):655-669.
Kipke, Michele D., S. Montgomery, et al. (1997). "Homes less youth: drug use patterns and HIV risk profiles according to peer affiliation." AIDS and Behaviour 1(4):247-259.
Kipke, Michele D., Susan O'Connor et al. (1995). "Street Youth in Los Angeles: profile of a group at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus infection." Archives of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine 149:513-519.
Kipke, Michele D., S. Montgomery, and R.G. MacKenzie (1993). "Risk factors and prevalence of substance use in homeless and non-homeless youth." Journal of Adolescent Health 14: 289-294.
Kral, A.H., B.E. Molnar, et al. (1997). "Prevalence of sexual risk behavior and substance use among runaway and homeless adolescents in San Francisco, Denver, and New York City." International Journal of STD and AIDS 8:109-117.
Kruks, Gabe (1991). "Gay and lesbian homeless/street youth: special issues and concerns." Journal of Adolescent Health 12(7):515-518.
Kryder-Coe, J.H., L.M. Salamon, and J.M. Molnar, eds. (1991). Homeless Children and Youth: A New American Dilemma. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers.
Kurtz, P. David, Elizabeth W. Lindsey, et al. (2000). "How runaway and homeless youth navigate troubled waters: the role of formal and informal helpers." Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal 17(5): 381-402.
Kurtz, P. David, and Sara V. Jarvis (1991). "Problems of homeless youths: empirical findings and human services issues." Social Work 36(4):309-314.
Kurtz, P. David, Gail L. Kurtz, et al. (1991). "Problems of maltreated runaway youth. Adolescence 26:543-555.
Lasley, James R. (1992). "Age, social context, and street gang membership: are 'youth' gangs becoming 'adult' gangs?" Youth and Society 23(4):434-451.
Lauritsen, Janet L., Robert J. Sampson, and John Laub (1991). "The link between offending and victimization among adolescents." Criminology 29:265-291.
Lazarus, Ellen (1990). "Falling through the cracks: contradictions and barriers to care in a prenatal clinic." Medical Anthropology 12:269-287.
Leadbetter, Bonnie J., Sidney J. Blatt, and Donald M. Quinlan (1995). "Gender-linked vulnerabilities to depressive symptoms, stress, and problem behaviors in adolescents." Journal of Research on Adolescence 5(1):1-29.
Lee, J., S. Gaetz, and F. Goettler (1994). "The oral health of Toronto's street youth." Journal of the Canadian Dental Association 60:545-548.
Liddiard, Mark and Susan Hutson (1990). "Homeless young people and runaways—agency definitions and processes." Journal of Social Policy 20(3):365-388.
Lindsey, Elizabeth W., David Kurtz, et al. (2000). "How runaway and homeless youth navigate troubled waters: personal strengths and resources." Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal 17(2):115-140.
Lowry, C. (1991). Karate Kids: Reaching the Unreached Street Kids." Toronto: International Press.
MacDonald, N.E., W. A. Fisher, et al. (1994). "Canadian street youth: correlates of sexual risk-taking activity." Pediatrics Infectious Disease Journal 13(8):690-697.
McCarthy, Bill (1995). On the Streets: Youth in Vancouver. Victoria: Ministry of Social Services, Province of British Columbia.
McCarthy, Bill and John Hagan (1992). "Mean streets: the theoretical significance of situational delinquency among homeless youths." American Journal of Sociology 98:597-627.
(1992). "Surviving on the street: the experiences of homeless youth." Journal of Adolescent Research 7:412-430.
(1991). "Homelessness: a criminogenic situation?" British Journal of Sociology 31: 393-410.
McCarthy, Bill, John Hagan, and Lawrence E. Cohen (1998). "Uncertainty, cooperation, and crime: understanding the decision to co-offend." Social Forces 77(1):155-176.
McCaskill, Pamela A., Paul A. Toro, and Susan M. Wolfe (1998). "Homeless and matched housed adolescents: a comparative study of psychopathology." Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 27(3):306-319.
McCreary Centre Society (2001). No Place to Call Home: A Profile of Street Youth in British Columbia. Press Release, March 26, 2001. "Street youth not just an urban issue in BC." www.mcs.bc.ca/march26.htm
(1994). Adolescent Health Survey : Street Youth in Vancouver. Prepared by Larry Peters, Aileen Murphy, and Roger Tonkin. Burnaby : McCreary Centre Society.
McCullagh, John and Mary Greco (1990). Servicing Street Youth: A Feasibility Study. Toronto: Children's Aid Society.
Molnar, Beth E., Stanley B. Shade, et al. (1998). "Suicidal behavior and sexual/physical abuse among street youth." Child Abuse and Neglect 22(3):213-222.
Molnar, J.M., W.R. Rath, and T.P. Klein (1990). "Constantly compromised: the impact of homelessness on children." Journal of Social Issues 46(4):109-124.
Moon, Martha W., William McFarland, et al. "HIV risk behavior of runaway youth in San Francisco: age of onset and relation to sexual orientation." Youth and Society 32(2): 184-201.
Morgan, Charles J. and Ana Mari Cauce (1999). Predicting DSM–III-R disorders from the youth self-report: analysis of data from a field study. Journal of the American Academy of Adolescent Psychiatry 38(10):1237-1245.
National Coalition for the Homeless (1997). Rural homelessness. National Coalition for the Homeless, Fact Sheet No. 13. Http://nch.ari.net/rural.html (1998, November).
National Council of Welfare (1997). Poverty Profile 1995. Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Services.
National Network of Runaway and Youth Services (1991). To Whom Do They Belong? Runaway, Homeless and Other Youth in High-Risk Situations in the 1990s. Washington, DC: National Network of Runaway and Youth Services.
National Research Council (1993). Losing Generations: Adolescents in High Risk Settings. Report of the Panel on High-Risk Youth. Commission on Behavioural and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Parry, Peny, Gary Tennant, and Tom Jopling (1996). Services to Street Youth in Vancouver: Perceptions of Service Providers. Vancouver: Interministerial Street Children's Committee, City of Vancouver Social Planning Department.
Pennbridge, Julia., T. Freese, and Richard MacKenzie (1992). "High-risk behaviors among male street youth in Hollywood, California." AIDS Education Preview Fall Supplement:24-33.
Podschun, Gary D. (1993). "Teen peer outreach-street work project: HIV prevention education for runaway and homeless youth." Public Health Reports 108(2):150-155.
Powers, J. L., J. Eckenrode, and B. Jaklitsch (1990). "Maltreatment among runaway and homeless youth." Child Abuse and Neglect 14:87-98.
Pries, S. and J. Silbert (1991). On Their Own: Runaway and Homeless Youth and Programs That Serve Them. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Child Development Center.
Rafferty, Y. and M. Shinn (1991). "The impact of homelessness on children." American Psychologist 46:1170-1179.
Read, S., et al. (1993). HIV Prevalence in Toronto Street Youth. Toronto: Hospital for Sick Children.
Reuler, J. (1991). "Outreach health services for street youth." Journal of Adolescent Health 12: 561-566.
Ringwalt, Christopher, Jody M. Greene, et al. (1998). "The prevalence of homelessness among adolescents in the United States. American Journal of Public Health 88(9):1325-1329.
Robertson, M.J. and R. Clark (1995). Surviving for the Moment: A Report on Homeless Youth in San Francisco. Berkeley: Alcohol Research Group.
Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane (1993). "Suicidal behavior and risk factors among runaway youths." American Journal of Psychiatry 150:103-107.
(1991). "Serving runaway and homeless youth." Family and Community Health 14(3): 23-32.
Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane, Debra Murphy, et al. (1998). "A brief HIV intervention for adolescents and young adults." American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 68(4): 553-564.
Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane, K.A. Mahler et al. (1996). "Sexual abuse history and associated multiple risk behavior in adolescent runaways. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 66: 390-400.
Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane, M. Rosario, et al. (1995). "Predicting patterns of sexual acts among homosexual and bisexual youths." American Journal of Psychiatry 152:588-595.
Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane, H. Meyer-Bahlburg, et al. (1992). "Lifetime sexual behavior among runaway males and females." Journal of Sex Research 29:15-29.
Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane, H. Meyer-Bahlburg, M. Rosario et al. (1992). "Lifetime sexual behaviors among predominantly minority male runaways and gay/bisexual adolescents in New York City." Aids Education and Prevention Supplement:34-42.
Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane and C. Koopman (1991). Sexual risk behaviors, AIDS, knowledge, and beliefs about AIDS among runaways. American Journal of Public Health 81(2):208-211.
Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane, C. Koopman, et al. (1991). "Reducing HIV sexual risk behavior among runaway adolescents." Journal of the American Medical Association 266:1237-1241.
Rothman, J. (1991). Runaway and Homeless Youth: Strengthening Services to Families and Children. New York: Longman.
Roy, Elise, Nancy Haley, P. Lederc, et al. (2000). "Prevalence of HIV infection and risk behaviours among Montreal street youth." International Journal of STD and AIDS 11(4):241-247.
Roy, Elise, Nancy Haley, Nicole Lemire, et al. (1999). "Hepatitis B virus infection among street youths in Montreal." Canadian Medical Association Journal 161(6):689-693.
Roy, Elise, Nicole Lemire, Nancy Haley, et al. (1998). "Injection drug use among street youth: a dynamic process." Canadian Journal of Public Health 89(4):239-240.
Roy, Elise, Jean-Francois Boivin, Nancy Haley, et al. (1998). "Mortality among street youth." Research Letters. The Lancet 352(7):32.
Ryan, Kimberly D., Ryan P. Kilmer, et al. (2000). "Psychological consequences of child maltreatment I homeless adolescents: untangling the unique effects of maltreatment and family environment." Child Abuse and Neglect 24(3):333-352.
Savin-Williams, R.C. (1994). "Verbal or physical abuse as stressors in the lives of lesbian, gay male, and bisexual youths." Journal of Consulting Clinical Psychology 62:261-269.
Sellers, James B. (2000). "Learning and Earning:" A Model for Calgary's Street Youth. Calgary Street Youth Task Force Final Report. Calgary: Calgary Street Youth Task Force.
Shane, Paul G. (1996). What About America's Homeless Children? Hide and Seek. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Sherman, Deborah J. (1992). "The neglected health care needs of street youth." Public Health Reports 107(4):433-440.
Simms, M. (1998). Medical care of children who are homeless or in foster care. Current Opinion in Pediatrics 10:486-490.
Simons, R. and L. Whitbeck (1991). "Sexual abuse as a precursor to prostitution and victimization among adolescent and adult homeless women." Journal of Family Issues 13:361-379.
Smart, D.H. (1991). "Homeless youth in Seattle." Journal of Adolescent Health 12:519-527.
Smart, Reginald G. and A. Ogborne (1994). Inner-city youths and condom use: health beliefs, clinic care, welfare, and the HIV epidemic. Adolescence 29(115):733-745.
Smart, Reginald G. and Gordon W. Walsh (1993). "Predictors of depression in street youth." Adolescence 28(109):41-53.
Smart, Reginald G., E.M. Adlaf, and Y. Zdanawicz (1992). Drifting and Doing: Changes in Drug Use Among Toronto Street Youth, 1990-1992. Toronto: Addiction Research Foundation.
Smart, Reginald G. and E.M. Adlaf (1991). "Substance use and problems among Toronto street youth." British Journal of Addiction 86:999-1010.
Smart, Reginald G. et al. (1990). Drugs, Youth and the Street. Toronto: Addictions Research Foundation.
Smart, Reginald G. and A. Ogborne (1994). "Street youth in substance use treatment: characteristics and treatment compliance." Adolescence 155(115):733-745.
Snow, David and Leon Anderson (1993). Down on Their Luck: A Study of Homeless Street People. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Sobo, Elisa J. et al. (1997). "Doubting the experts: AIDS misconceptions among runaway adolescents." Human Organization 56(3):311-320.
Sondheimer, Diane (1992). HIV infection and disease among homeless adolescents. In R. DiClemente, ed., Adolescents and AIDS: A Generation in Jeopardy. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
Sosin, Michael, Irving Piliavin, and Ross L. Matsueda (1990). "Toward a longitudinal analysis of homelessness." Journal of Social Issues 46:157-174.
Stefanidis, Nikolaos, Julia Pennbridge, et al. (1992). American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 62(3):442-446.
Stiffman, A., P. Dore, and R. Cunningham 1994). Inner-city youths and condom use: health beliefs, clinic care, welfare, and the HIV epidemic. Adolescence 29(116):805-820.
Stricof, R., J. Kennedy, et al. (1991). HIV seroprevalence in a facility for runaway and homeless adolescents. American Journal of Public Health 81 (Supplement):50-53.
Stronge, J.H., ed. (1992). Educating Homeless Children and Adolescents: Evaluating Policy and Practice. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.
Sugerman, S.T., A.C. Hergenroeder, et al. (1991). "Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and adolescents: knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of runaway and homeless youths." American Journal of Diseases in Children 145(4):431-436.
Sullivan, T. Richard (1996). "The challenge of HIV prevention among high-risk adolescents." Health and Social Work 21(1):58-65.
Sussman, Steve, Clyde W. Dent, et al. (1998). "One-Year Outcomes of Project Towards No Drug Abuse." Preventive Medicine 27:632-642.
Teare, John F., Roger W. Peterson, et al. (1994). "Treatment implementation in a short-term emergency shelter program." Child Welfare 73(3):271-281.
Terrell, Nathanial Eugene (1997). "Street life: aggravated and sexual assaults among homeless and runaway adolescents." Youth and Society 28(3):267-290.
Tremblay, Pierre J. (1994). The Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Factor in the Youth Suicide Problem. http://www.virtualcity.com/youthsuicide/book.html
Tupker, Elizabeth (2000). Concerned youth promoting harm reduction (CYPHR): a participatory research and development project with street involved youth. Paper presented to the 8th International Conference on the Reduction of Drug-Related Harm. March 24-27, 2000. Paris.
Twaite, James A. and Diane Tirado Lampert (1997). "Outcomes of mandated preventive service programs for homeless and truant children: a follow-up study." Social Work 42(1):11-18.
Vigil, James Diego (1996). "Street baptism: Chicano gang initiation." Human Organization 55(2):149-153.
Vissing, Y.M. (1996). Out of Sight, Out of Mind: Homeless Children and Families in Small-Town America. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.
Wang, E.E., S. King, E. Goldberg, et al. (1991). Hepatitus B and human immunodeficiency virus infection in street youths in Toronto, Canada." Pediatric Infectious Diseases 10:130-133.
Warr, Mark (1996). "Organization and instigation in delinquent groups." Criminology 34:11-37.
Webber, Marlene (1991). Street Kids: The Tragedy of Canada's Runaways. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Whitbeck, Les B., Danny R. Hoyt, and Kevin A. Ackley (1999). "Abusive family backgrounds and later victimization among runaway and homeless youth." Journal of Adolescent Research.
(1997). "Families of homeless and runaway adolescents: a comparison of parent/caretaker and adolescent perspectives on parenting, family violence, and adolescent conduct." Child Abuse and Neglect 21(6):517-528.
Whitbeck, Les B. and Ronald S. Simons (1993). "A comparison of adaptive strategies and patterns of victimization among homeless adolescents and adults." Violence and Victims 8:135-184.
(1990). "Life on the streets: the victimization of runaway and homeless adolescents." Youth and Society 22(1):108-25.
Witt, Peter A. and John L. Crompton, eds. (1996). Recreation Programs That Work for At-Risk Youth: The Challenge of Shaping the Future. State College, Penn.: Venture Publishing.
Wong, Siu Kwong (1999). "Acculturation, peer relations, and delinquent behavior of Chinese-Canadian youth." Adolescence 34(133):107-119.
Wooden, Wayne (1995). Renegade Kids, Suburban Outlaws. Toronto: Wadsworth.
Wright, Bradley R. Entner, Avshalom Caspi, et al. (1998). "Factors associated with doubled-up housing—a common precursor to homelessness." Social Service Review 72(1):92-111.
Wright, Paul, Rich Harwell, and Lawrence Allen (1999). "Project STRIDE: a unique summer intervention program for youth-at-risk." Journal of Park and Recreation Administration 16(1):97-113.
Yates, G.L., Richard G. MacKenzie, et al. (1991). "A risk profile comparison of homeless youth involved in prostitution and homeless youth not involved." Journal of Adolescent Health 12:545-548.
Yoder, Kevin A., Dan R. Hoyt, and Les B. Whitbeck (1998). "Suicidal behavior among homeless and runaway adolescents." Journal of Youth and Adolescence 27(6):753-771.
Ziesemer, C., L. Marcoux, and B.E. Maxwell (1994). "Homeless children: are they different from other low-income children?" Social Work 39:658-668.
Zoerink, Dean, Anita H. Magafas, and Katharine A. Pawelko (1997). "Empowering youth at risk through community service." Child and Youth Care Forum 26(2):127-138.
- Date modified: