Drug and Driving: A Compendium of Research Studies

Annotated Sources (cont'd)

Netherlands

44. Movig, K. L. L., Mathijssen, M. P. M., Nagel, P. H. A., van Egmond, T., de Gier, J. J., Leufkens, H. G. M., and Egberts, A. C. G. (2004)

Psychoactive substance use and the risk of motor vehicle accidents. Accident Analysis and Prevention 36: 631-636.

Overview

Case-control study of injured drivers

Population(s) and proportion tested

110 injured drivers of car or vans needing hospitalization

Controls were randomly stopped on public roads

Netherlands

Time period of May 2000 to August 2001

Drugs examined (threshold values for detection)
  • Alcohol
  • Amphetamines
  • Barbiturates
  • Benzodiazepines
  • Cannabis
  • Methadone
  • Opiates
  • Tricyclic antidepressants
Method of testing and medium used

Blood and/or urine samples

Other dependent variables

Crash circumstances, injury severity, age, gender, BAC, drug concomitant drug exposure, season, and time of day

Findings (including statistical methods)

40% of cases (versus 14% for controls) were positive for at least one or more drugs and/or alcohol

OR for road accidents and benzodiazepines use was 5.1, alcohol (BAC >.5 g/l) 5.5 (16 for BAC >.8 g/l)

Amphetamines, cocaine, and opiates had two-fold increase but n.s.

Concurrent use of two or more drugs, compared to no drug use, resulted in an OR of 6.1

Comments

Different distributions of blood versus urine samples in the two groups may have led to information bias

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