The Economic Impact of Firearm-related Crime in Canada, 2008

Appendix A: Criminal Justice System CostsFootnote 36

A.1 Police Costs

Total police expenditure 2008 $11,448,937,000Table note a
Proportion of the expenditures spent on crime-related activities 65%Table note b
Police expenditure on crime-related activities ($11,448,937,000*0.65) $7,441,809,050Table note *
Total Police Costs for Firearm-Related Crime $209,772,812
Table note *

Allocating the police expenditures that were spent on crime-associated among offences according to their severity weights. The results are presented in Table A1

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Table A1: Police Expenditures Allocated among Offences according to Severity Weights.
Offences Severity weightsTable note c Police costs per incident Number of incidentsTable note d Polices costs
Homicide 7,042/1,822 $291,595.31 187 $54,528,323
Other violations causing death 688/62 $29,675.76 5 $148,379
Attempted murder 1,411 $62,688.65 259 $16,236,360
Aggravated sexual assault - level 3 1,047 $46,526.24 4 $186,105
Sexual assault with a weapon - level 2 678 $30,137.65 33 $994,542
Sexual assault - level 1 211 $9,373.41 36 $337,443
Sexual violations against children 211 $9,001.17 4 $36,005
Aggravated assault - level 3 405 $17,987.89 103 $1,852,753
Assault with weapon / causing bodily harm - level 2 77 $3,438.03 1,601 $5,504,286
Common assault - level 1 23 $1,041.01 257 $267,540
Assault police officer 42 $1,865.98 34 $63,443
Other assaults 143/398 $4,055.18 21 $85,159
Firearms - use of, discharge, pointing 988/267 $19,356.10 1,328 $25,704,901
Robbery 583 $25,901.60 3,667 $94,981,167
Forcible confinement / Kidnapping 477 $21,192.22 286 $6,060,975
Abduction 162/67 $4,732.71 3 $14,198
Extortion 229 $10,174.04 38 $386,614
Criminal harassment 45 $1,999.27 40 $79,971
Uttering threats 46 $2,043.69 944 $1,929,243
Other violent violations 1278/611 $10,725.86 35 $375,405
Total Police Costs for Firearm-Related Crime       $209,772,812
Table note a

The total police expenditures include salaries and wages, benefits, and other operating expenses such as accommodation costs, fuel, and maintenance, etc. Note that capital expenditures, funding from external sources, revenues and recoveries are not included. Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics (CCJS), Police Resources in Canada 2009.

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Table note b

It is assumed that Canadian police spend 65% of their time on crime-related activities. Other duties can include: traffic regulations (non-criminal), offering youth education seminars, coordinating community efforts, patrolling a regular route or responding to phone calls ranging from noise complaints to non-crime emergency calls for help. After several communications with the Ottawa Police Service, 65% is considered as a reasonable proportion.

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Table note c

Statistics Canada assigns a weight to all crime based on their seriousness. The level of seriousness is based on actual sentences handed down by the courts in all provinces and territories. More serious crimes are assigned higher weights, less serious offences lower weights. As a result, it is assumed that more serious offences would use a greater amount of police resources. In Table A1, some offence categories are given more than two weights separated with a “/”. This is because the detailed violations under that category have different weights. For example, the weights for both first-degree and second-degree murders are 7,042, but the weight for manslaughter is lower at 1,822. All three violations are under the group of homicide.

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Table note d

Source: Statistics Canada, CCJS, Uniform Crime Report Survey 2 (UCR2) 2008. Micro data was extracted in February, 2011. The underrepresentation of the UCR2 micro data (98%) has been adjusted.

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A.2 Court Costs

Number of active civil cases per capita 2.06%Table note e
Population 2002/03 31,568,167Table note f
Estimated number of active civil cases 2002/03 (31,568,167*2.06%) 650,304
Number of total criminal cases (adult + youth) 2002/03 469,840Table note g
Total cases processed in courts 2002/03 (650,304+469,840) 1,120,144
Total court expenditures 2002/03 $1,151,885,000Table note h
Average court cost per case 2002/03 ($1,151,885,000/1,120,144) $1,028.34
Average court cost per case ($1,028.34*1.23) $1,264.86Table note i
Average court cost per case 2008 (inflation adjustment) $1,433.10
Number of firearm offence cases processed in criminal courts 2008 715Table note j
Total Criminal Court Costs for Firearm-Related Offences (715*1,433.10)$1,024,667
Table note e

This figure is calculated as the average of the active civil cases per capita over the period between 2005/06 and 2008/09 in corresponding jurisdictions. Source: Statistics Canada, CCJS, Civil Court Survey Statistics, 2005/06 to 2008/09.

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Table note f

Source: Statistics Canada, CCJS, Population by Age and Sex, Canada, Provinces and Territories, 2008.

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Table note g

Source: Statistics Canada, CCJS, Adult Criminal Court Survey (ACCS) and Youth Court Survey (YCS), Number of Cases and Charges by Type of Decision, 2002/03. The underrepresentation of the ACCS has been adjusted.

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Table note h

Source: Statistics Canada, CCJS, Overview of the Courts Personnel and Expenditures Survey, 2002/03.

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Table note i

As both the average number of appearances per criminal case and the average elapsed time per criminal case have increased by approximately 23% in 2008/09 as compared to 2002/03, we assume that there has been a general trend towards lengthier and more complex cases. These changes should be reflected in the associated court costs. Therefore, 1.23 is used as a multiplier to reflect the increased demand for the court resources.

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Table note j

Source: Statistics Canada, CCJS, ACCS and YCS, Cases by Decision, 2007/08 and 2008/09. The underrepresentation of the ACCS has been adjusted.

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A.3 Prosecution Costs

Total criminal prosecution expenditures (excluding BC) 2002/03 $352,139,000Table note k
Number of criminal cases (adult + youth) (excluding BC) 2002/03 418,754Table note l
Average prosecution cost per case 2002/03 ($352,139,000/418,754) $840.92
Average prosecution cost per case ($840.92*1.23) $1,034.33Table note m
Average prosecution cost per case 2008 (inflation adjustment) $1,171.90
Number of firearm offence cases processed in criminal courts 2008 715Table note n
Total Prosecution Costs for Firearm-Related Offences (715*$1,171.90) $837,909
Table note k

Source: Statistics Canada, CCJS, Overview of the Prosecutions Personnel and Expenditures Survey, 2002/03.

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Table note l

Source: Statistics Canada, CCJS, ACCS and YCS, Number of Cases and Charges by Type of Decision, 2002/03. The underrepresentation of the ACCS has been adjusted.

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Table note m

See section A.2, note e.

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Table note n

See section A.2, note f.

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A.4 Legal Aid Costs

Direct legal service expenditures (criminal matters) 2007/08 $282,085,000Table note o
Other expenditures (criminal matters) 2007/08 $69,255,000Table note p
Total legal aid expenditures (criminal matters) 2007/08 ($282,085,000 + $69,255,000) $351,340,000
Direct legal service expenditures (criminal matters) 2008/09 $306,202,000Table note o
Other expenditures (criminal matters) 2008/09 $74,653,000Table note p
Total legal aid expenditures (criminal matters) 2008/09 ($306,202,000 + $74,653,000) $380,855,000
Total Legal service expenditures 2008 ($351,340,000*25% + $380,855,000*75%) $373,476,250
Number of total criminal cases in Canada 2008 472,100Table note q
Legal aid costs per case 2008 ($373,476,250/472,100) $791.10
Number of firearm offence cases processed in criminal courts 2008 715Table note r
Total Legal Aid Costs for Firearm-Related Offences (715*$791.10) $565,637
Table note o

Source: Statistics Canada, CCJS, Legal Aid in Canada: Resource and Caseload Statistics, 2007/08 and 2008/09.

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Table note p

While direct legal service expenditures were disaggregated between criminal matters and civil matters, other expenditures were not. Therefore, we apply the percentage that the criminal legal service expenditures represent (out of the total direct legal service expenditures) to other expenditures to obtain the proportion of other expenditures that were spent on criminal matters. Other expenditures include office functions, external project expenditures and research activities, etc.

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Table note q

Source: Statistics Canada, CCJS, ACCS and YCS, Number of Cases and Charges by Type of Decision 2007/08 and 2008/09. The underrepresentation of the ACCS has been adjusted.

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Table note r

See section A.2, note j.

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A.5 Correctional Service Costs

A.5.1 Custody Costs

A.5.1.1 Federal Custody
Part 1: Non-Murder Offenders of Federal Custody
Number of male offenders admitted to federal custody 2008 90Table note s
Number of female offenders admitted to federal custody 2008 1Table note s
Average length of federal custody (days) for male offenders 2008 1,734Table note s
Average length of federal custody (days) for female offenders 2008 1,923Table note s
Federal full parole grant rate for male offenders 2008 41.3%Table note t
Federal full parole grant rate for female offenders 2008 76.1%Table note t
Number of male offenders released on full parole (90*41.3%) 37
Number of female offenders released on full parole (1*76.1%) 1Table note u
Number of male offenders released on statutory release [(90-37)*95%] 50Table note v
Number of female offenders released on statutory release (1-1) 0
Proportion of the sentence served before parole release, male 2008 38.5%Table note w
Proportion of the sentence served before parole release, female 2008 36.4%Table note w
Failure rate of parole 2008 27.1%Table note x
Failure rate of statutory release 2008 40.1%Table note x
Length of federal incarceration (days) without parole and statutory release, male [(90-37-50)*1,734] 5,202
Length of federal incarceration (days) before parole release, male (37*1,734*38.5%) 24,701
Length of federal incarceration (days) before statutory release, male (50*1,734*2/3) 57,800Table note y
Number of male offenders failing in parole (37*27.1%) 10
Number of male offenders failing in statutory release (50*40.1%) 20
Length of federal incarceration (days) for male offenders due to failure in parole or statutory release [10*(1-38.5%)*0.5+20*(1-2/3)*0.5]*1,734 11,112Table note y
Total federal incarceration (days) for male offenders (5,202 + 24,701 + 57,800 + 11,112) 98,815
Length of federal incarceration (days) before parole release, female (1*1,923*36.4%) 700
Number of female offenders failing in parole 0Table note u
Total federal incarceration (days) for female offenders 700
Average daily federal incarceration cost per person, male 2008 $287Table note z
Average daily federal incarceration cost per person, female 2008 $542Table note z
Federal incarceration cost, male (98,815*$287) $28,359,905
Federal incarceration cost, female (700*$542) $379,400
Total federal incarceration costs ($28,359,905+$379,400) $28,739,305
Length of parole (days) for male offenders [(37-10)*1,734*(1-38.5%)+10*1,734*(1-38.5%)*0.5] 34,125
Length of parole (days) for female offenders [1*1,923*(1-36.4%)] 1,223
Length of statutory release (days) for male offenders [(50-20)*1,734*1/3 +20*1,734*1/3*0.5] 23,120
Length of statutory release (days) for female offenders 0Table note u
Total number of days in parole or statutory release, male (34,125+23,120) 57,245
Annual costs of supervising an offender on parole or statutory release 2008 $21,826Table note aa
Average daily costs of supervising an offender on parole or statutory 2008 (21,826/365.25) $59.76
Costs of supervising male offenders on parole or statutory release (57,245*$59.76) $3,420,961
Cost of supervising female offenders on parole or statutory release (1,223*$59.76) $73,086
Total cost of supervising offenders on parole or statutory release ($3,420,961+$73,086) $3,494,047
Federal custody costs for non-murder offenders ($28,739,305+$3,494,047) $32,233,352
Table note s

Source: Statistics Canada, CCJS, ACCS and YCS, Case by Length of Custody, 2007/08 and 2008/09.

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Table note t

Source: Public Safety, Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview Annual Report 2009, Table D1. Due to data limitations, day parole is not examined.

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Table note u

It is assumed that the only female offender was granted the full parole release and was successful in completing the parole.

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Table note v

Offenders who are not granted parole release are normally subject to statutory release after serving approximately 2/3 of their sentence. This is the law and is not a discretionary release by the National Parole Board. The offender is supervised in the community and will be returned to prison if he/she is believed to present an undue risk to the public. We assume that 95% of the federal offenders who were not released on parole would be released on statutory release. Statutory release does not apply to those convicted of 1st or 2nd degree murder (and a few other rare offences). The 5% can be considered as a factor to capture dangerous or repeat offenders.

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Table note w

Source: Public Safety, Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview Annual Report 2009, Table D4.

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Table note x

Source: Public Safety, Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview Annual Report 2009, Table D8 and Table D9.

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Table note y

Assumption: revocation occurs in the middle of parole or statutory release, and offenders are returned to incarceration on breach of release conditions to serve the rest of their sentences. Additional sentences due to new charges are not considered due to data limitations.

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Table note z

Source: Public Safety, Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview Annual Report 2009 and 2010, Figure B3.

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Table note aa

Source: Correctional Service Canada, Basic Facts about the Correctional Service of Canada, 2003/04. The costs have been adjusted for inflation from $19,755 per offender in 2003/04 to $21,826 in 2008.

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Part 2: Murder Offenders of Federal Custody
Number of male first-degree murderers admitted to federal custody 12Table note ab
Number of female first-degree murderers admitted to federal custody 0Table note ab
Number of male second-degree murderers admitted to federal custody 7Table note ab
Number of female second-degree murderers admitted to federal custody 2Table note ab
Average length of federal custody (days) for first-degree murderers 9,131Table note ac
Average length of federal custody (days) for second-degree murderers 7,762Table note ac
Percentage of first-degree murderers applying for judicial review under the Faint Hope clause 41.5%Table note ac
Percentage of second-degree murderers applying for judicial review under the Faint Hope clause 25.3%Table note ac
Percentage of first-degree murderers having parole ineligibility reduced 53.8%Table note ac
Percentage of second-degree murderers having parole ineligibility reduced 39.2%Table note ac
Number of male first-degree murderers released on parole (12*41.5%*53.8%) 3
Number of male second-degree murderers released on parole (12*25.3%*39.2%) 1
Number of female first-degree murderers released on parole 1Table note ad
Average length of federal custody (days) served before parole release for first-degree murderers 6,737Table note ac
Average length of federal custody (days) served before parole release for second-degree murderers 6,474Table note ac
Failure rate of parole for murderers (due to breach of release condition) 28%Table note ac
Number of male first-degree murderers failing in parole (3*28%) 1
Number of male second-degree murderers failing in parole (1*28%) 0
Number of female second-degree murderers failing in parole 0Table note ad
Length of federal incarceration (days), first-degree murderers 103,587
Male offenders without parole [(12-3)*9,131] 82,179
Male offenders released on parole (before parole) (3*6,737) 20,211
Male offenders released on parole (failing in parole) [1*0.5*(9,131-6,737)] 1,197
Length of federal incarceration (days), second-degree murderers 67,282
Male offenders without parole [(7-1)*7,762] 46,572
Male offenders released on parole (before parole) (1*6,474) 6,474
Male offenders released on parole (failing in parole) 0
Female offenders without parole (1*7,762) 7,762
Female offenders released on parole (before parole) (1*6,474) 6,474
Female offenders released on parole (failing) 0
Total federal incarceration (days) for male murderers (82,179+20,211+1,197+46,572+6,474) 156,633
Total federal incarceration (days) for female murderers (7,762+6,474) 14,236
Average daily federal incarceration cost per person, male $287Table note ae
Average daily federal incarceration cost per person, female $542Table note ae
Federal incarceration cost, male murderers (156,633*287) $44,953,671
Federal incarceration cost, female murderers (14,236*542) $7,715,912
Total federal incarceration costs for murderers ($44,953,671+$7,715,912) $52,669,583
Length of parole (days) for male first-degree murderers [(2+1*0.5) (9,131-6,737)] 5,985
Length of parole (days) for male second-degree murderers [1*(7,762-6,474)] 1,288
Length of parole (days) for female second-degree murderers 1,288
Total number of days in parole for male murderers (5,985+1,288) 7,273
Total number of days in parole for female murderers 1,288
Average daily costs of supervising an offender on parole $59.76Table note af
Cost of supervising male murderers on parole (7,273*$59.76) $434,634
Cost of supervising female murderer on parole (1,288*$59.76) $76,971
Total cost of supervising murderers on parole ($434,634+$76,971) $511,605
Federal custody costs for murder offenders ($52,669,583+$511,605) $53,181,188
Table note ab

As court information regarding the number of murder cases where a firearm was involved is not available, we apply the conviction rate of the overall homicide to the number of offenders who were charged with first-degree and second-degree murder where a firearm was present or used. Then, we use the sentences distribution for the overall homicide convictions to estimate the various sentences that were given to these firearm murderers. Number of offenders charged with murder where a firearm was involved is available from Statistics Canada, CCJS, UCR2, 2008. Information on the overall homicide conviction rate and sentence distribution is available from Statistics Canada, CCJS, ACCS and YCS, 2007/08 and 2008/09.

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Table note ac

Source: Department of Justice Canada, An Analysis of the Use of the Faint Hope Clause 2010.

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Table note ad

Assumption: for the two female second-degree murderers, it is assumed that one did not receive reduction in the parole ineligibility and therefore, was not released on parole before her sentence served, and the other were granted parole and were successful in completing the parole

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Table note ae

See section A.5.1.1, Part 1, note z.

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Table note af

See section A.5.1.1, Part 1, note aa. It is assumed that 1 year has 365.25 days.

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5.1.2 Provincial Custody

Number of male offenders admitted to provincial custody 124Table note ag
Number of female offenders admitted to provincial custody 7Table note ag
Average length of provincial custody (days) for male offenders 246Table note ag
Average length of provincial custody (days) for female offenders 146Table note ag
Provincial full parole grant rate 2008 50%Table note ah
Number of male offenders released on full parole (124*50%) 62
Number of female offenders released on full parole (7*50%) 4
Number of male offenders released on statutory release (124-62) 62Table note ai
Number of female offenders released on statutory release (7-4) 3Table note ai
Proportion of the sentence served before parole release 1/3Table note aj
Provincial full parole failure rate 2008 24%Table note ak
Number of male offenders failing in parole (62*24%) 15
Number of female offenders failing in parole (4*24%) 1
Length of provincial incarceration (days) before parole release, male [62*246*1/3)] 5,084
Length of provincial incarceration (days) without parole, male (62*246*2/3) 10,168
Length of provincial incarceration (days) due to failure in parole, male (15*246*2/3)*0.5 1,230
Total provincial incarceration (days) for male offenders (5,084+ 10,168+1,230) 16,482
Length of provincial incarceration (days) before parole release, female [4*146*1/3)] 195
Length of provincial incarceration (days) without parole, female (3*146*2/3) 292
Length of provincial incarceration (days) due to failure in parole, female (1*146*2/3)*0.5 49
Total provincial incarceration (days) for female offenders (195+292+49) 536
Average daily provincial/territorial incarceration cost per person 2008 $160Table note al
Provincial male incarceration cost (16,482*$160) $2,637,120
Provincial female incarceration cost (536*$160) $85,760
Total provincial incarceration cost ($2,637,120+$85,760) $2,722,880
Provincial parole (days) for male offenders [(62-15)*246*2/3+15*246*0.5*2/3] 8,938
Provincial parole (days) for female offenders [(4-1)*146*2/3+1*146*0.5*2/3)] 341
Average daily provincial parole cost, 2008 $22Table note am
Provincial parole cost for male offenders (8,938*$22) $196,636
Provincial parole cost for female offenders (341*$22) $7,502
Total provincial parole costs ($196,636 + $7,502) $204,138Table note an
Total provincial custody costs ($2,722,880+$204,138) $2,927,018
Table note ag

Source: Statistics Canada, CCJS, ACCS and YCS, Case by Length of Custody, 2007/08 and 2008/09.

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Table note ah

Source: National Parole Board, Performance Monitoring Report 2008-2009, Table 71.

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Table note ai

If parole is denied, the provincial offender must be released, by law, after serving 2/3 of the sentence.

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Table note aj

Offenders sentenced to provincial custody generally are paroled after serving 1/3 of their sentence.

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Table note ak

Source: National Parole Board, Performance Monitoring Report 2008-2009, Table 144.

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Table note al

Source: Statistics Canada, CCJS, Adult Correctional Services in Canada 2008-2009, Reference Tables, Table 4.

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Table note am

We assume $22 ($10 cheaper than daily cost for conditional sentence) as an average cost per day (not per visit) for provincial parole, which is in the range of $5-$25 for community supervision. Source: http://www.prisonjustice.ca/politics/facts_stats.html.

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Table note an

Provincial supervision of offenders on statutory release is not considered here as there is no data available and it is not as strict as the supervision for federal offenders on statutory release.

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Table A2: Summary of Custody Costs for Firearm-related offences
5.1.1 Federal custody costs $85,414,540
Part 1: non-murder offenders of federal custody $32,233,352
Part 2: murder offenders of federal custody $53,181,188
5.1.2 Provincial custody costs $2,927,018
Total custody costs for firearm-related offences 2008 $88,341,558

A.5.2 Conditional Sentence Costs

Number of male offender receiving conditional sentence 5Table note ao
Average length (days) of conditional sentence for male offenders 234Table note ap
Number of female offender receiving conditional sentence 1Table note ao
Average length (days) of conditional sentence for female offenders 219Table note ap
Average daily cost for conditional sentence per offender ($160*0.2) $32Table note aq
Conditional sentence cost for male offenders(5*234*$32) $37,440
Conditional sentence cost for female offenders(1*219*$32) $7,008
Total conditional sentence costs for firearm-related offences 2008 ($37,440+$7,008) $44,448
Table note ao

Source: Statistics Canada, CCJS, ACCS and YCS, Cases by Most Serious Sentence, 2007/08 and 2008/09.

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Table note ap

Source: Statistics Canada, CCJS, Conditional Sentencing in Canada: A Statistical Profile 1997-2001, Catalogue no. 85-560-XIE.

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Table note aq

It was reported that a person is supervised in the community for about 20% of the cost of provincial custody. Source: The John Howard Society of Ontario, Fact Sheet, Reconsidering Community Corrections in Ontario. January, 1997.

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A.5.3 Probation Costs

Number of male offenders receiving probation 135Table note ar
Number of female offenders receiving probation 14Table note ar
Average probation length in days for male offenders 472Table note as
Average probation length in days for female offenders 484Table note as
Probation length in days for male offenders (135*472) 63,720
Probation length in days for female offenders (14*484) 6,776
Average daily probation cost for probation per person $20Table note at
Probation cost for male offenders (63,720*$20) $1,274,400
Probation cost for female offenders (6,776*$20) $135,520
Total probation costs for firearm-related offences 2008 ($1,274,400+$135,520) $1,409,920
Table note ar

Source: Statistics Canada, CCJS, ACCS and YCS, Cases by Most Serious Sentence, 2007/08 and 2008/09.

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Table note as

Source: Statistics Canada, CCJS, ACCS and YCS, Cases by Length of Probation, 2007/08 and 2008/09.

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Table note at

Considering that the seriousness of probation is lower than conditional sentence, it is assumed that the daily probation cost is $20.

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A.5.4 Fine Costs

Number of male offenders receiving fine as sentence 1Table note au
Number of female offenders receiving fine as sentence 0Table note au
Average fine amount for male offenders, 2008 $575Table note av
Total fine costs for firearm-related offences, 2008 -$575
Table note au

Source: Statistics Canada, CCJS. ACCS and YCS, Cases by Most Serious Sentence, 2007/08 and 2008/09.

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Table note av

Source: Statistics Canada, CCJS. ACCS and YCS, Cases by Fine Amount, 2007/08 and 2008/09.

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Table A3: Summary of Total Corrections Costs for Firearm-Related Offences, 2008
5.1 Custody Costs $88,341,558
5.2 Conditional Sentence Costs $44,448
5.3 Probation Costs $1,409,920
5.4 Fine Costs -$575
Total Corrections Costs for Firearm-Related Offences $89,795,351
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