The Economic Impact of Firearm-related Crime in Canada, 2008

Appendix B: Victim CostsFootnote 37

B.1 Health Care Costs

B.1.1 Medical Attention from a PhysicianFootnote 38

Number of female victims having medical attention from a physician 219Table note a
Number of male victims having medical attention from a physician 3Table note a
Average cost of one physician visit 2004/05 $50.36Table note b
Average cost of one physician visit 2008 (Inflation adjustment) $55.64
Costs of medical attention from a physician for female victims (219*$55.64) $12,185
Costs of medical attention from a physician for male victims (3*$55.64) $167
Total health care costs, physician (12,185+167) $12,352
Table note a

Source: Statistics Canada, GSS 2009, Cycle 23, Victimization. Main File: SEX, EXVIOL, PSX_Q190, XAI_Q140, CRVIOL, PSP_Q190, SAI_Q140; Incident File: CIR_Q105_C01, CIR_Q180, WGHT_VIC.

Return to table note a referrer

Table note b

Source: Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI), National Physician Database and National Grouping System Categories Report, Canada 2004/05, Table 7-5: Major Assessments for Office.

Return to table note b referrer

B.1.2 Medical Attention at Emergency Departments (ED)

Number of female victims having medical attention at ED 1,017Table note c
Number of male victims having medical attention at ED 82Table note c
Average ED treatment cost per visit $400.41Table note d
Cost of ED treatment for female victims (1,017*$400.41) $407,217
Cost of ED treatment for male victims (82*$400.41) $32,834
Percentage of female victims transported to ED by ground ambulance 78%Table note e
Percentage of male victims transported to ED by ground ambulance 70%Table note e
Number of female victims transported to ED by ambulance (1,017*0.78) 793
Number of male victims transported to ED by ambulance (82*0.7) 57
Average cost of ground ambulance service $587.08Table note f
Cost of providing ambulance transports for female victims (793*$587.08) $465,554
Cost of providing ambulance transports for male victims (57*$587.08) $33,464
Cost of ED visits for female victims ($407,217+$465,554) $872,771
Cost of ED visits for male victims ($32,834+$33,464) $66,298
Total health care costs, emergency department ($872,771+$66,298) $939,069
Table note c

Source: Statistics Canada, GSS 2009, Cycle 23, Victimization. Main File: SEX, EXVIOL, PSX_Q190, XAI_Q130, CRVIOL, PSP_Q190, SAI_Q130; Incident File: CIR_Q105_C01, CIR_Q170, WGHT_VIC.

Return to table note c referrer

Table note d

An American study (Bamezai, Melnick and Nawathe, 2005) suggested that for trauma ED visits, the average cost per visit was US$192 in 1998, with a low of US$171 and a high of US$215. Using the exchange rate of 1998 (US$1=CAD$1.484), US$215 is converted into CAD$319 in that year. After adjustment for inflation, CAD$319 in 1998 is equivalent to CAD$400 in 2008. Firearm-related crime can result in serious or critical bodily injuries, wounds, or shock, as compared to non-firearms violence. Hence, it is expected that the treatment cost for injuries caused during the violence should be relatively higher than the overall average cost of all ED visits. Therefore, we use the higher bound cost per trauma ED visit from USA (vs. non-trauma visits) in our estimation. According to the CIHI, the average cost of an ED visit in Canada for all ages (seniors included) was $260 in 2007/08.

Return to table note d referrer

Table note e

The National Ambulatory Care Reporting System (NACRS) data provided by the CIHI suggest that 78% female victims and 70% male victims of firearm offences (with firearm-caused injuries) were transported to emergency departments by ground ambulance. We assume that this percentage applies to all the victims of firearm-related crime, regardless of whether the injury was caused by a firearm or not.

Return to table note e referrer

Table note f

There is not much variation in the cost of providing an ambulance transport among provinces. We use the statistics from British Columbia. Source: Ministry of Health, BC Ambulance Service, 2007, Ambulance Fee Changes, available from http://www2.news.gov.bc.ca/news_releases_2005-2009/2007HEALTH0101-001106-Attachment1.htm. In 2006/07, the average cost of providing a ground ambulance transport to hospital was $565 which is equivalent to $587 in 2008 after inflation adjustment.

Return to table note f referrer

B.1.2.1 Medical Attention at ED (Firearm-caused Injuries, hospital-reported data)
Number of female victims having ED treatment in Ontario 9Table note g
Number of male victims having ED treatment in Ontario 131Table note g
Number of female victims transported to ED by ground ambulance in ON 7Table note g
Number of male victims transported to ED by ground ambulance in ON 91Table note g
Population of Ontario that is female aged 12 and over, 2008 5,711,646Table note h
Population of Ontario that is male aged 12 and over, 2008 5,494,444Table note h
Population of Canada that is female aged 12 and over, 2008 14,674,120Table note h
Population of Canada that is male aged 12 and over, 2008 14,287,122Table note h
Estimated number of female victims having ED treatment in Canada (9*14,674,120/5,711,646) 23Table note i
Estimated number of male victims having ED treatment in Canada (131*14,287,122/5,494,444) 341Table note i
Average ED treatment cost per visit $400.41Table note j
Cost of ED treatment for female victims (23*$400.41) $9,209
Cost of ED treatment for male victims (341*$400.41) $136,540
Estimated number of female victims transported to ED by ground ambulance in Canada (7*14,674,120/5,711,646) 18Table note i
Estimated number of male victims transported to ED by ground ambulance in Canada (91*14,287,122/5,494,444) 237Table note i
Average cost of ground ambulance service $587.08Table note k
Cost of ground ambulance transports for female victims (18*$587.08) $10,567
Cost of ground ambulance transports for male victims (237*$587.08) $139,138
ED visit cost for female victims ($9,209+$10,567) $19,776
ED visit cost for male victims ($136,540+$139,138) $275,678
Total Emergency Department Visit Cost ($19,776+$275,678) $295,454
Table note g

Source: CIHI, National Ambulatory Care Reporting System (NACRS) 2008/09. Only Ontario is covered in the NACRS.

Return to table note g referrer

Table note h

Source: Statistics Canada, Annual Demographic Statistics, 2009. As suggested by the CIHI data, more than half of the patients with firearm-caused injuries were less than 23 years old. Therefore, we decided to use the population aged 12 and over, rather than 18 and over, for the estimation.

Return to table note h referrer

Table note i

It is assumed that the relevant per capita statistics in Canada are the same as the figures in Ontario.

Return to table note i referrer

Table note j

See Section B.1.2 note d.

Return to table note j referrer

Table note k

See Section B.1.2 note f.

Return to table note k referrer

Note that records from federal hospitals, e.g. prisons and veteran hospitals are not included. Patients who arrived dead at the hospital or died before treatment are excluded in the cost estimation. Only gunshot injuries that were intentionally caused by other people are included. Accidents and intentional self-harm such as suicides are excluded. Table B1 presents the offence categories which are included.

Table B1: Firearm/Gunshot Codes and Categorizations
X93 Assault by handgun discharge
X94 Assault by rifle, shotgun and larger firearm discharge
X95 Assault by other and unspecified firearm discharge
X95.00 Assault by BB gun discharge
X95.01 Assault by air gun discharge
X95.08 Assault by other specified firearm discharge
X95.09 Assault by unspecified firearm discharge

B.1.3 Acute Hospitalization (Firearm-caused Injuries, hospital-reported data)

Number of female victims admitted to acute hospitalization in Canada excluding Quebec 11Table note l
Number of male victims admitted to acute hospitalization in Canada excluding Quebec 206Table note l
Number of female victims transported to acute care institutions in Canada excluding Quebec, by type of ambulance 11
By ground ambulance 9Table note l
By combination of air, ground and water ambulance 2Table note l
Number of male victims transported to acute care institutions in Canada excluding Quebec, by type of ambulance 130
By air ambulance 3Table note l
By ground ambulance 123Table note l
By combination of air, ground and water ambulance 4Table note l
Population of Canada excluding Quebec that is female aged 12 and over 11,226,013Table note m
Population of Canada excluding Quebec that is male aged 12 and over 10,937,777Table note m
Population of Canada that is female aged 12 and over 14,674,120Table note m
Population of Canada that is male aged 12 and over 14,287,122Table note m
Estimated number of female victims admitted to hospitalization in Canada (11/11,226,013*14,674,120) 14Table note n
Estimated number of male victims admitted to hospitalization in Canada (206/10,937,777*14,287,122) 269Table note n
Average hospitalization cost per female patient $46,868Table note o
Average hospitalization cost per male patient $19,997Table note o
Hospitalization cost of firearm-caused injuries, female victims (14*46,868) $656,152
Hospitalization cost of firearm-caused injuries, male victims (269*19,997) $5,379,193
Estimated number of female victims transported to acute care institutions in Canada, by type of ambulance 15
By ground ambulance (9/11,226,013*14,674,120) 12Table note n
By combination of air, ground and water ambulance (2/11,226,013*14,674,120) 3Table note n
Estimated number of male victims transported to acute care institutions in Canada, by type of ambulance 170
By air ambulance (3/10,937,777*14,287,122) 4Table note n
By ground ambulance (123/10,937,777*14,287,122) 161Table note n
By combination of air, ground and water ambulance (4/10,937,777*14,287,122) 5Table note n
Average cost of ground ambulance service $587.08Table note p
Average cost of air ambulance service $4,675.84Table note p
Average cost of combination of ambulance services ($587.08+$4,675.84) $5,262.92Table note q
Cost of ambulance transportation to acute care institution in Canada (by gender) $162,372
Female victims (12*$587.08+3*$5,262.92) $22,834Table note o
Male victims (4*$4,675.84+161*$587.08+5*$5,262.92) $139,538Table note o
Total acute hospitalization costs for female victims ($656,152+$22,834) $678,986
Total acute hospitalization costs for male victims ($5,379,193+$1,139,538) $5,518,731
Total acute hospitalization costs ($678,986+$5,518,731) $6,197,717
Table note l

Source: CIHI, Discharge Abstract Database (DAD) 2008/09. Quebec is not covered in the DAD . In addition, records from federal hospitals, e.g. prisons and veteran hospitals are also not included in the DAD . Ambulance transport services examined in this section do not include those transports to emergency departments. See Section B.1.2.1 note g.

Return to table note l referrer

Table note m

See Section B.1.2.1 note h

Return to table note m referrer

Table note n

It is assumed that the relevant per capita statistics in Canada are the same as the figures in Quebec.

Return to table note n referrer

Table note o

The CIHI provides valuable cost information, including average length of stay (LOS), average resource intensity weight (RIW) and cost per weighted case (CPWC), for firearm-caused injuries by offence category. By using this information, we are able to estimate the average hospitalization cost per patient for firearm-caused injuries.

Return to table note o referrer

Table note p

There is not much variation in the cost of providing an ambulance transport among provinces. We use the statistics from British Columbia. Source: Ministry of Health, BC Ambulance Service, 2007, Ambulance Fee Changes, available from http://www2.news.gov.bc.ca/news_releases_2005-2009/2007HEALTH0101-001106-Attachment1.htm. In 2006/07, the average cost was $565 for providing a ground ambulance transport, and $4,500 for an air ambulance transport. After inflation adjustment, the costs become $587.08 and $4,675.84, respectively, in 2008.

Return to table note p referrer

Table note q

For a combination of different ambulance transports, we only count one air ambulance transport and one ground ambulance transport.

Return to table note q referrer

Table B2: Summary of Total Health Care Costs by Gender
  Female Male Total
Medical Attention from a Physician $12,185 $167 $12,352
Medical Attention at a Hospital $872,771 $66,298 $939,069
Acute Hospitalization $678,986 $5,518,731 $6,197,717
Total Health Care Costs $1,563,942 $5,585,196 $7,149,138

B.2 Productivity Losses

B.2.1 Lost Wages and SalariesTable note r

Number of days staying in hospital, female victims, GSS 2009, mMin File 245Table note s
Number of days staying in bed (excluding hospital time), female victims, GSS 2009, Main File 1,254Table note t
Number of days off from work (excluding hospital and bed time), female victims, GSS 2009, Main File 4,257Table note u
Total number of days absent from work (245+1,254+4,257), female victims, GSS 2009, Main File 5,756
Average daily wage rate of female victims, GSS 2009, Main File $117.80Table note v
Lost wages for female victims (5,756*$117.80), female victims, GSS 2009, Main File $678,057
Number of days staying in hospital, male victims, GSS 2009, Main File 0Table note s
Number of days staying in bed (excluding hospital time), male victims, GSS 2009, Main File 44Table note t
Number of days off from work (excluding hospital time and bed time, male victims, GSS 2009, Main File 328Table note u
Total number of days absent from work (44+328), male victims, GSS 2009, Main File 372
Average daily wage rate of male victims, GSS 2009, Main File $178.87Table note v
Lost wages for male victims (372*$178.87), GSS 2009, Main File $66,540
Number of days absent from work, female victims, GSS 2009, Incident File 289,787Table note w
Average daily wage rate of female victims, GSS 2009, Incident File $145.36Table note x
Lost wages for female victims (289,787*$145.36), GSS 2009, Incident File $42,123,438
Number of days absent from work, male victims, GSS 2009, Incident File 137,965Table note w
Average daily wage rate of male victims, GSS 2009, Incident File $140.44Table note x
Lost wages for male victims (137,965*$140.44), male victims, GSS 2009, Incident File $19,375,805
Total Lost Wages for Female Victims ($678,057+$42,123,438), GSS 2009, Incident File $42,801,495
Total Lost Wages for Male Victims ($66,540+$19,375,805), GSS 2009, Incident File $19,442,345
Total Lost Wages to Victims ($42,801,495+$19,442,345), GSS 2009, Incident File $62,243,840
Table note r

Source: Statistics Canada, GSS 2009, Cycle 23, Victimization. In the Main File, respondents who reported that their main activity during the last 12 months was either “working at a paid job or business” or “maternity/paternity leave” are included (ACMYR). In the Incident File, respondents who reported that their main activity was “working at a paid job or business are included (OBC_Q150), as there is no record for “maternity leave” and “on vacation”.

Return to table note r referrer

Table note s

Source: Statistics Canada, GSS 2009, Cycle 23, Victimization. Main File: SEX, ACMYR, EXVIOL, PSX_Q190, XAI_Q135_C (2004), CRVIOL, PSP_Q190, SAI_Q132. Information for time length staying in hospital is not available in the 2009 GSS PUMP file. Therefore, the value from the 2004 GSS is used in the present estimation.

Return to table note s referrer

Table note t

Source: Statistics Canada, GSS 2009, Cycle 23, Victimization. Main File: SEX, ACMYR, EXVIOL, PSX_Q190, XAI_Q155_C, CRVIOL, PSP_Q190, SAI_Q155_C. In the 2009 GSS questionnaire, respondents could respond 1 day, 2 days and 3 days or more as their answer to the question regarding the number of days staying in bed. For respondents who answered 3 days or more, we use 3 days for the estimation.

Return to table note t referrer

Table note u

Source: Statistics Canada, GSS 2009, Cycle 23, Victimization. Main File: SEX, ACMYR, EXVIOL, PSX_Q190, XAI_Q160, CRVIOL, PSP_Q190, SAI_Q160. It is assumed that each victim who took time off from their main activity, on average, took 2 days.

Return to table note u referrer

Table note v

Source: Statistics Canada, GSS 2009, Cycle 23, Victimization. Main File: SEX, ACMYR, INCM, EXVIOL, PSX_Q190, CRVIOL, PSP_Q190. Daily wages are calculated from annual income divided by 52.18 weeks per year and 5 days per week.

Return to table note v referrer

Table note w

Source: Statistics Canada, GSS 2009, Cycle 23, Victimization. Main File: SEX; Incident File: CIR_Q105_C01, OBC_Q150, OBC_Q160 and LOSTDAYS. Variable LOSTDAYS reported number of days that respondent found it difficult or impossible to carry out his/her main activity (the activity was disrupted for at least 6 hours during a day.

Return to table note w referrer

Table note x

Source: Statistics Canada, GSS 2009, Cycle 23, Victimization. Main File: SEX; Incident File: INCM, CIR_Q105_C01, OBC_Q150, OBC_Q160. Daily wages are calculated from annual income divided by 52.18 weeks per year and 5 days per week.

Return to table note x referrer

B.2.2 Lost Household Services

Number of days staying in hospital, female victims, GSS 2009, Main File 268Table note y
Number of days staying in bed (excluding hospital time), female victims, GSS 2009, Main File 1,843Table note z
Number of days off from work (excluding hospital and bed time), female victims, GSS 2009, Main File 4,777Table note aa
Number of lost days, female victims, GSS 2009, Incident File 219,222Table note ab
Total Number of Days Not Able to Perform Household Services (268+1,843+4,777+219,222) 298,110
Number of days staying in hospital, male victims, GSS 2009, Main File 0Table note y
Number of days staying in bed (excluding hospital time), male victims, GSS 2009, Main File 87Table note z
Number of days off from work (excluding hospital and bed time), male victims, GSS 2009, Main File 336Table note aa
Number of lost days, male victims, GSS 2009, Incident File 143,754Table note ab
Total Number of Days Not Able to Perform Household Services (0+87+336+143,754) 144,177
Average hours per day in housework and spousal care activities, female 3.9Table note ac
Average hours per day in housework and spousal care activities, male 2.5Table note ac
Lost hours for household services, female victims (298,110*3.9) 1,162,629
Lost hours for household services, male victims (144,177*2.5) 360,443
Average hourly wage rate for household workers (Inflation adjustment) $13.2Table note ad
Value of lost household services for female victims (1,162,629*$13.2) $15,346,703
Value of lost household services for male victims (360,443*$13.2) $4,757,848
Total value of lost household services ($15,346,703+$4,757,848) $20,104,551
Table note y

Source: Statistics Canada, GSS 2009, Cycle 23, Victimization. Main File: SEX, EXVIOL, PSX_Q190, XAI_Q135_C (2004), CRVIOL, PSP_Q190, SAI_Q132. See section B.2.1, note b.

Return to table note y referrer

Table note z

Source: Statistics Canada, GSS 2009, Cycle 23, Victimization. Main File: SEX, EXVIOL, PSX_Q190, XAI_Q155_C, CRVIOL, PSP_Q190, SAI_Q155_C. See section B.2.1, note c.

Return to table note z referrer

Table note aa

Source: Statistics Canada, GSS 2009, Cycle 23, Victimization. Main File: SEX, EXVIOL, PSX_Q190, XAI_Q160, CRVIOL, PSP_Q190, SAI_Q160. See section B.2.1, note d.

Return to table note aa referrer

Table note ab

Source: Statistics Canada, GSS 2009, Cycle 23, Victimization. Incident File: CIR_Q105_C01, OBC_Q160, LOSTDAYS. See section B.2.1, note f.

Return to table note ab referrer

Table note ac

Source: Statistics Canada. July 2011. General Social Survey 2010: Overview of the Time Use of Canadians. Catalogue no. 89-647-X, available at http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/89-647-x/89-647-x2011001-eng.pdf.

Return to table note ac referrer

Table note ad

Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey. The average wage rate of household workers for activities such as meal preparation and cleanup, house cleaning, laundry and sewing was $12.91 per hour in 2007. After inflation adjustment, the cost was $13.2 in 2008.

Return to table note ad referrer

B.2.3 Lost School DaysTable note ae

Number of days missing school, female victims, aged 20+ 154Table note af
Number of days missing school, male victims, aged 18+ 1,461Table note af
Number of days missing school, male victims, aged 15-17 4,328Table note af
National average annual tuition fees for undergraduate studies, 2008 $4,854Table note ag
Average school days in universities in Canada 125Table note ah
Average cost per university day ($4,854/125) $38.83
National average annual tuition fees for secondary education, 2008 $7,198Table note ai
Average secondary school days in Canada 190Table note aj
Average cost per secondary school day ($7,198/190) $37.88
Value of lost school days for female victims (154*$38.83) $5,980
Value of lost school days for male victims (1,461*$38.83+4,328*$37.88) $220,675
Total value of lost school days ($5,980+$220,675) $226,655
Table note ae

Source: Statistics Canada, GSS 2009, Cycle 23, Victimization. In the Main File, respondents who reported their main activity during the last 12 months was “going to school” are included (ACMYR). In the Incident File, respondents who reported their main activity was “going to school” are included (OBC_Q150).

Return to table note ae referrer

Table note af

Source: Statistics Canada, GSS 2009, Cycle 23, Victimization. Main File: SEX, ACMYR, AGEGR5, EXVIOL, PSX_Q190, XAI_Q135_C (2004), XAI_155_C, XAI_Q160, CRVIOL, PSP_Q190, SAI_Q132, SAI_Q155_C, SAI_Q160; Incident File: CIR_Q105_C01, OBC_Q150, OBC_Q160, LOSTDAYS. See section B.2.1, note s, t and u.

Return to table note af referrer

Table note ag

Source: Statistics Canada, The Daily, University Tuition Fees, 2010/2011, available from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/daily-quotidien/100916/dq100916-eng.pdf. The national average undergraduate tuition fee for Canadian full-time students was $4,942 in 2009/10. After inflation adjustment, the tuition fee was $4,854 in 2008.

Return to table note ag referrer

Table note ah

There is not much variation in terms of the length of school days among universities. For example, University of Toronto offered 120 instruction days in 2009, information available at http://www.artsandscience.utoronto.ca/ofr/archived/0910calendar/0910_Calendar.pdf. McGill University offered 130 instruction days for undergraduate programs in 2008, information available at http://coursecalendar.mcgill.ca/ugcal200809/wwhelp/wwhimpl/js/html/wwhelp.htm. The University of British Columbia offered 125 teaching days in 2009, information available at http://www.senate.ubc.ca/vancouver/termdates.cfm?go=archive. Therefore, 125 days was used in the present report.

Return to table note ah referrer

Table note ai

This is an average figure of several provinces, including New Brunswick, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia. Source: Provincial Department of Education, Annual reports.

Return to table note ai referrer

Table note aj

Canada generally has 190 school days (secondary education) per year. Source: Wikipedia, Education in Canada, available from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_Canada.

Return to table note aj referrer

B.2.4 Lost Child Care ServicesTable note ak

Number of days losing child care services, female victims 1,410Table note al
Number of days losing child care services, male victims 0Table note al
Average child care cost per day 2008 $30Table note am
Cost of lost child care service for female victims (1,410*30) $42,300
Cost of lost child care service for male victims (0*30) $0
Total value of lost child care services ($42,300+$0) $42,300
Table note ak

Source: Statistics Canada, GSS 2009, Cycle 23, Victimization. In the Main File, respondents who reported their main activity during the last 12 months was “caring for children” are included (ACMYR). In the Incident File, respondents who reported their main activity was “caring for children” are included (OBC_Q150).

Return to table note ak referrer

Table note al

Source: Statistics Canada, GSS 2009, Cycle 23, Victimization. Main File: SEX, ACMYR, EXVIOL, PSX_Q190, XAI_Q132, XAI_155, XAI_Q160, CRVIOL, PSP_Q190, SAI_Q132, SAI_155, SAI_Q160; Incident File: CIR_Q105_C01, OBC_Q150, OBC_Q160, LOSTDAYS.

Return to table note al referrer

Table note am

Source: Today's Parent, available from http://www.todaysparent.com/lifeasparent/childcare/article.jsp?content=20100302_173310_5996&page=1. This figure is the average cost of services proved to different age groups of children (infant, toddler, preschool and school age) across all provinces.

Return to table note am referrer

B.2.5 Lost Future IncomeTable note an

Number of female victims needing long-term care in Canada excluding Quebec 1Table note ao
Number of male victims needing long-term care in Canada excluding Quebec 46Table note ao
Population of Canada excluding Quebec that is female aged 12 and over 11,226,013Table note ap
Population of Canada excluding Quebec that is male aged 12 and over 10,937,777Table note ap
Population of Canada that is female aged 12 and over 14,674,120Table note ap
Population of Canada that is male aged 12 and over 14,287,122Table note ap
Estimated number of female victims needing long-term care in Canada (1/11,226,013*14,674,120) 1Table note aq
Estimated number of male victims needing long-term care in Canada (46/10,937,777*14,287,122) 62Table note aq
Average age of female victims needing long-term care 23Table note ao
Average age of male victims needing long-term care 28Table note ao
Median retirement age for females in Canada 2008 60.6Table note ar
Median retirement age for males in Canada 2008 61.3Table note ar
Lost working years for female victims (60.6-23) 37.6
Lost working years for male victims (61.3-28) 33.3
Average annual income for female victims of firearm crime $33,550Table note as
Average annual income for male victims of firearm crime $34,219Table note as
The present value of income losses per female victim ($33,550*37.6) $1,216,480Table note at
The present value of total income losses per male victim ($34,219*33.3) $1,139,493Table note at
Future income losses for female victims ($1,216,480*1) $1,261,480
Future income losses for male victims ($ 1,139,493*62) $70,648,547
Total future income losses ($ 1,261,480+$ 70,648,547) $71,910,027
Table note an

Source: CIHI, Discharge Abstract Database (DAD), 2008/09. Victims who were discharged from hospital but then transferred to long-term care facilities are examined in this section. It is assumed that those victims who required long-term care would lose their ability to perform working task during the rest of their lives.

Return to table note an referrer

Table note ao

Source: CIHI, Discharge Abstract Database (DAD) 2008/09. Quebec is not covered in the DAD. In addition, records from federal hospitals, e.g. prisons and veteran hospitals are also not included in the DAD.

Return to table note ao referrer

Table note ap

See Section B.1.2.1 note b.

Return to table note ap referrer

Table note aq

See Section B.1.2.3 note c.

Return to table note aq referrer

Table note ar

Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey (LFS), Retirement Age by Class of Worker and Sex, CANSIM, Table 282-0051.

Return to table note ar referrer

Table note as

Source: Statistics Canada, GSS 2009, Cycle 23, Victimization. Main File: SEX, EXVIOL, PSX_Q190, AGEGR5, INCM; Incident File: CIR_Q105_C01. The average annual income is calculated for all respondents who had experienced victimization of crime where a gun was present or used.

Return to table note as referrer

Table note at

For the purpose of simplicity, we assume that there is no significant position promotion and the general annual income increase is only to offset the impact of inflation. Then by assuming that the discount rate is the same as the future inflation rate (e.g. no capital cost), this figure is lump-sum present value of the entire future income stream for victims. In this case, we are actually assuming that the present value of the future annual income remain the same as the value in the year 2008.

Return to table note at referrer

Table B3: Summary of Total Productivity Losses by Gender
  Female Male Total
Lost Wages and Salaries $42,801,495 $19,442,345 $62,243,840
Lost Household Services $15,346,703 $4,757,848 $20,104,551
Lost School Days $5,980 $220,675 $226,655
Lost Child Care Services $42,300 $0 $42,300
Lost Future Incomes $1,261,480 $70,648,547 $71,910,027
Total Productivity Losses $59,457,958 $95,069,415 $154,527,373

B.3 Personal Costs

B.3.1 Stolen/Damaged Property

Value of stolen/damaged property for female victims $26,157,986Table note au
Value of stolen/damaged property for male victims $2,233,247Table note au
Total value of stolen/damaged property ($26,157,986+$2,233,247) $28,391,233
Table note au

Source: Statistics Canada, GSS 2009, Cycle 23, Victimization. Main File: SEX, WGHT_PER; Incident File: CIR_Q105_C01, SPR_Q130_C, VALDAMGE_C, WGHT_VIC.About 23,861 female victims and 9,916 male reported that they had property stolen or damaged during the incidents.

Return to table note au referrer

B.3.2 Legal Services

Table B3 : Summary of Total Productivity Losses by Gender
Number of female victims contacting lawyer 16,875Table note av
Number of male victims contacting lawyer 467Table note av
Average hourly rate of lawyer 2008 $231Table note aw
Average service length (visiting hours) per victim 5Table note ax
Legal service costs for female victims (16,875*$231*5) $19,490,625
Legal service costs for male victims (467*$231*5) $539,385
Total legal service costs ($19,490,625+$539,385) $20,030,010
Table note av

Source: Statistics Canada, GSS 2009, Cycle 23, Victimization. Main File: SEX, PSX_Q190, EXVIOL, XTA_Q150, PSP_Q190, CRVIOL, STA_Q150; Incident File: CIR_Q105_C01, TTA_Q150, WGHT_VIC.

Return to table note av referrer

Table note aw

Source: The Canadian Lawyer's 2009 Legal Fees Survey.

Return to table note aw referrer

Table note ax

No information is available regarding the length (hours) of service use. It is assumed that on average, each victim required 5 hours legal services.

Return to table note ax referrer

B.3.3 Counselling Services

Number of female victims contacting counsellor or psychologist 3,408Table note ay
Number of male victims contacting counsellor or psychologist 3,232Table note ay
Average hourly cost of counselling $70Table note az
Average service length (visiting hours) per victim 24Table note ba
counselling service costs for female victims (3,408*$70*24) $5,725,440
counselling service costs for male victims (3,232*$70*24) $5,429,760
Total counselling service costs ($5,725,440+$5,429,760) $11,155,200
Table note ay

Source: Statistics Canada, GSS 2009, Cycle 23, Victimization. Mail File: SEX, PSX_Q190, XCS_Q125, PSP_Q190, SCS_Q125; Incident File: CIR_Q105_C01, TTA_Q220, WGHT_VIC.

Return to table note ay referrer

Table note az

In Saskatoon, the average cost of private, unsubsidized counselling is $60 to $100 per hour and community-based, publicly funded counselling is typically $45 per hour. Source: Prairie Women's Health Centre of Excellence, The Cost of Providing Health Care Services to Women Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse 2003, available from http://www.pwhce.ca/pdf/TamarasHouse31_01_03.pdf. We use a lower bound value of the private, unsubsidized counselling for the estimation. After inflation adjustment, the counselling cost was $70 per hour in 2008. This rate is within the rate range ($40-$105) regulated by the Crime Victim Assistance Program Counselling Guidelines, Ministry of Public Safety and Solicitor General, British Columbia.

Return to table note az referrer

Table note ba

Source: Ministry of Public Safety and Solicitor General, British Columbia. Crime Victim Assistance Program Counselling Guidelines, available from http://www.pssg.gov.bc.ca/victimservices/publications/docs/cvap-counselling-guidelines.pdf. This guideline establishes the maximum number of hours of counselling provided to victims: 48 hours. Following this, we assume that generally victims on average require 24 hours counselling services.

Return to table note ba referrer

Table B4: Summary of Total Personal Costs by Gender
  Female Male Total
Stolen/Damaged Property $26,157,986 $2,233,247 $28,391,233
Legal Services $19,490,625 $539,385 $20,030,010
Counselling Services $5,725,440 $5,429,760 $11,155,200
Total Personal Costs $51,374,051 $8,202,392 $59,576,443

B.4 Intangible Costs to Victims

B.4.1 Pain and Suffering

Number of female victims who survived the crime, UCR2 2008 3,025Table note bb
Number of female victims with major physical firearm-caused injury, UCR2 2008 37Table note bc
Percentage of femalevictims with major physical firearm-caused injury (37/3,025), UCR2 2008 1.22%
Percentage of female victims with minor or no injury (1-1.22%), UCR2 2008 98.78%
Number of female victims of sexual assault, GSS 2009 1,051Table note bd
Number of female victims of robbery, GSS 2009 8,593Table note bd
Number of female victims of assault, GSS 2009 18,830Table note bd
Total Number of Female Victims (1,051+8,593+18,830) 28,474
Number of female victims with major physical firearm-caused injury (28,474*1.22%) 347Table note be
Number of female sexual assault victims with minor or no injury (1,051*98.78%) 1,038Table note be
Number of female robbery victims with minor or no injury (8,593*98.78%) 8,488Table note be
Number of female assault victims with minor or no injury (18,830*98.78%) 18,600Table note be
Number of male victims who survived the crime, UCR2 2008 6,177Table note bb
Number of male victims with major physical firearm-caused injury, UCR2 2008 399Table note bc
Percentage of male victims with major physical firearm-caused injury (399/6,177), UCR2 2008 6.46%
Percentage of male victims with minor or no injury (1-6.46%), UCR2 2008 93.54%
Number of male victims of sexual assault, GSS 2009 1,521Table note bd
Number of male victims of robbery, GSS 2009 2,742Table note bd
Number of male victims of assault, GSS 2009 21,321Table note bd
Total Number of Male Victims (1,521+2,742+21,321) 25,584
Number of male victims with major physical firearm-caused injury (25,584*6.46%) 1,653Table note be
Number of male sexual assault victims with minor or no injury (1,521*93.54%) 1,423Table note be
Number of male robbery victims with minor or no injury (2,742*93.54%) 2,565Table note be
Number of male assault victims with minor or no injury (21,321*93.54%) 19,944Table note be
Proposed value of pain and suffering (major physical firearm-caused injury) $117,000Table note bf
Proposed value of pain and suffering (minor or no injury, sexual assault) $84,500Table note bf
Proposed value of pain and suffering (minor or no injury, robbery) $14,500Table note bf
Proposed value of pain and suffering (minor or no injury, assault) $9,500Table note bf
Value of pain and suffering for female victims with physical firearm-caused injury ($117,000*347) $40,599,000
Value of pain and suffering for female sexual assault victims with minor or no injury ($84,500*1,038) $87,711,000
Value of pain and suffering for female robbery victims with minor or no injury ($14,500*8,488) $123,076,000
Value of pain and suffering for female assault victims with minor or no injury ($9,500*18,600) $176,700,000
Value of Pain and Suffering for All Female Victims $428,086,000
Value of pain and suffering for male victims with physical firearm-caused injury ($117,000*1,653) $193,401,000
Value of pain and suffering for male sexual assault victims with minor or no injury ($84,500*1,423) $120,243,500
Value of pain and suffering for male robbery victims with minor or no injury ($14500*2,565) $37,192,500
Value of pain and suffering for male robbery victims with minor or no injury ($9,500*19,944) $189,468,000
Value of Pain and Suffering for All Male Victims $540,305,000
Total value of pain and suffering ($428,086,000+$540,305,000) $968,391,000
Table note bb

Source: Statistics Canada, CCJS, Uniform Crime Report Survey 2 (UCR2) 2008, Victims of Violent Crime where Firearms were Present, by Violation and Sex of Victim. Micro data was extracted in February, 2011.

Return to table note bb referrer

Table note bc

Source: Statistics Canada, CCJS, Uniform Crime Report Survey 2 (UCR2) 2008, Victims of Violent Crime where Firearms were Used, by Violation, Sex of Victim and Level of Injury. Micro data was extracted in February, 2011. In the UCR2, major physical injury is defined as more than trifling or transient in nature and requiring professional medical attention at the scene or transportation to a medical facility.

Return to table note bc referrer

Table note bd

Source: Statistics Canada, GSS 2009, Cycle 23, Victimization. Main File: SEX, PSX_Q190, EXVIOL, EXPHYSABUSE, EXSEXABUSE, PSP_Q190, CRVIOL, CRPHYSABUSE, CRSEXABUSE; Incident File, CIR_Q105_C01, MSCRIME.

Return to table note bd referrer

Table note be

Since the 2009 GSS data does not distinguish the different levels of injuries, we use the information suggested by the UCR2 data. We separate the victims into various groups. Those with major physical firearm-caused injury are in one group regardless of the offence type and those with minor or no injury are separated further by offence type: sexual assault, robbery and assault.

Return to table note be referrer

Table note bf

Cohen (1988) used jury award information to value pain and suffering for non-fatal injuries. He estimated the monetary value of pain and suffering for gunshot wound/firearms injury at USD$59,344. He also estimated the value of pain and suffering for other crimes, including USD$43,561 for rape, USD$7,459 for robbery and USD$4,921 for assault. These four figures are used to estimate the value of pain and suffering for the four groups of victims: victims with major physical firearm-caused injury, sexual assault victims with minor or no injury; robbery victims with minor or no injury and assault victims with minor or no injury. Take inflation into consideration, these values were equivalent to approximately CAD$117,000, $84,500, $14,500 and $9,500 in 2008 dollars.

Return to table note bf referrer

B.4.2 Loss of Life

Number of female deaths due to firearms related crimes 2008 25Table note bg
Number of male deaths due to firearms related crimes 2008 179Table note bg
Proposed dollar value of a human life $7,490,000Table note bg
Value of lost lives for female victims (25*7,490,000) $187,250,000
Value of lost lives for male victims (179*$7,490,000) $1,340,710,000
Total value of loss of life ($187,250,000+$1,340,710,000) $1,527,960,000
Table note bg

The 2008/2009 VSL figure (average estimate based on labour market) in the US was about USD$7-8 million. It is decided to use the value of USD$7 million which is equivalent to $7.49 million in the 2008 Canadian dollar in the present report.

Return to table note bg referrer

Table B5: Summary of Total Intangible Costs by Gender
  Female Male Total
Pain and Suffering $428,086,000 $540,305,000 $968,391,000
Loss of life $187,250,000 $1,340,710,000 $1,527,960,000
Total Intangible Costs $615,336,000 $1,881,015,000 $2,496,351,000
Date modified: