Disproportionate Harm: Hate Crime in Canada

APPENDIX A

APPENDIX A - DATA TABLES

Table 1 - Hate Crimes in America: Offence Breakdown (1992)
Offence # of Incidents % Total Incidents
Threats 3,328 37%
Mischief/Vandalism 2,040 23%
Assault 1,765 20%
Aggravated Assault 1,431 16%
Robbery 172 2%
Break and Enter 69 <1%
Arson 47 <1%
Theft 36 <1%
Murder 17 <1%
Rape 8 <1%
Theft Motor Vehicle 5 <1%
TOTAL 8,918 100%

Source: Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S. Department of Justice.

Table 2 - Hate Crimes in America: Target Categories (1992)
Category # of Incidents % Total Incidents
Racial 5,050 63%
Religious 1,240 15%
Sexual Orientation 944 12%
Ethnicity/Nationality 841 10%
TOTAL 8,075 100%

Source: Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S. Department of Justice.

Table 3 - Hate Crimes in America: Target Categories in New York City (1987-1988)
Category # of Incidents % Total Incidents
Racial 585 59%
Religious 280 28%
Sexual Orientation 66 7%
Ethnicity/Nationality 62 6%
TOTAL 993 100%

Excludes unclassified cases.

Source: Garafolo (1993).

Table 4 - Hate Crimes in America: Offence Categories by Target Group New York City (1988)
Offence Racial Ethnicity/ Nationality Religious Sexual Orientation
Assault 42% 42% 6% 41%
Harassment 37% 44% 34% 45%
Mischief 7% 6% 55% 8%
Threats 6% 3% 1% 2%
Burglary/ Robbery 5% 2% 3% 2%
Reckless Endanger Life 1% 2%   2%
Other 1% 1% 1% 1%
TOTAL 100% 100% 100% 100%

Column totals may exceed 100% due to rounding.

Source: Garafolo (1993).

Table 5 Estimates of Number of Racially-motivated Crimes in England and Wales (Afro-Caribbeans and Asians)
Assault 23,000-45,000
Threats 29,000-71,000
Vandalism 17,000-41,000
Other Crimes 8,000-26,000
TOTAL 89,000-171,000

Source: British Crime Survey, 1992

Table 6 Racially-motivated Crimes in England and Wales: Proportion of all crimes involving racial motivation
  Afro-Caribbean Asian
Threats 35% 57%
Assault 30% 44%
Robbery 2% 8%
Theft from motor vehicle 2% 2%
Burglary 4% 4%
Motor vehicle theft 2% 2%
All offences reported to British Crime Survey 14% 24%

Source: British Crime Survey (1992); Home Office

Table 7 - Hate Crimes in Toronto: Target Categories
Category # of Incidents % Total Incidents
Racial 77 50%
Religious 54 35%
Sexual Orientation 16 10%
Ethnicity/Nationality 8 5%
TOTAL 155 100%

Source: Metropolitan Toronto Police

Table 8 - Hate Crimes in Toronto: Offence Categories
Offence # of Incidents % Total Incidents
Mischief Under 38 25%
Assault 37 24%
Threats 27 17%
Mischief Over 21 14%
Bomb Threats 13 8%
Robbery/Break & Enter 7 5%
Other 12 7%
TOTAL 155 100%

Source: Metropolitan Toronto Police

Table 9 - Hate Crimes in Toronto: Offence Category by Target Category
Target Category Crime
Assault Mischief
Racial 77% 58%
Religious 7% 31%
Ethnicity/Nationality 9% 8%
Other 19% 3%
TOTAL 100% 100%

Source: Metropolitan Toronto Police

Table 10 - Hate Crimes in Montreal: Target Categories
Category # of Incidents % Total Incidents
Racial 157 79%
Religious 8 4%
Sexual Orientation 17 9%
Ethnicity/Nationality 7 4%
Other 10 5%
TOTAL 1991 100%

Source: Montreal Police

1 The total of 199 reflects the fact that one incident was directed at two distinct categories of victims (Jewish people and homosexuals), accordingly it was counted twice.

Table2 11 - Hate Crimes in Montreal: Offence Categories
Offence # of Incidents % Total Incidents
Assault 68 34%
Mischief 57 29%
Threats 47 24%
Hate Literature 9 5%
Robbery 8 4%
Break and Enter 5 3%
Theft 4 2%
TOTAL 198 100%

Source: Montreal Police

Table 12 - Hate Crimes in Ottawa: Target Categories
Category # of Incidents % Total Incidents
Racial 215 54%
Religious 110 29%
Sexual Orientation 45 11%
Ethnicity/Nationality 25 6%
TOTAL 395 100%

Source: Ottawa Police Service

Table 13 - Hate Crimes in Ottawa: Detailed Breakdown of Racial Categories
Racial Category # of Incidents % Total Incidents
Anti-Black 161 75%
Anti-White 27 13%
Anti-Asian 12 6%
Anti-Multi-Racial 9 4%
Anti-Aboriginal 6 3%
TOTAL 215 100%

Source: Ottawa Police Service

Table 14 - Hate Crimes in Ottawa: Breakdown of Religious Target Category
Religious Category # of Incidents % Total Incidents
Anti-Semitic 96 87%
Anti-Islamic 8 7%
Anti-Catholic 3 3%
Anti-Protestant 1 <1%
Other 2 2%
TOTAL 110 100%

Source: Ottawa Police Service

Table 15 - Hate Crime Targets: Canada v. U.S. (Police Statistics)
Target Category % Hate Crimes in Canada (1993-1994) % Hate Crimes U.S (1992)
Racial Minorities 61% 62.5%
Religious Minorities 23% 15.4%
Sexual Orientation 11% 11.7%
Ethnic Minorities 5% 10.4%
TOTAL 100% 100%

Sources: Canada: Department of Justice Canada; U.S.: Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation.

Table 16 - Anti-Semitic Incidents, Canada 1982-1994
Year Offence Category Total # of incidents Total %
Vandalism Harassment
# of incidents % Total # of incidents % Total
1982 19 (30%) 44 (70%) 63 (100%)
1983 25 (52%) 23 (48%) 48 (100%)
1984 60 (48%) 66 (52%) 126 (100%)
1985 52 (55%) 43 (45%) 95 (100%)
1986 23 (42%) 32 (58%) 55 (100%)
1987 18 (33%) 37 (67%) 55 (100%)
1988 52 (46%) 60 (54%) 112 (100%)
1989 63 (36%) 113 (64%) 176 (100%)
1990 60 (29%) 150 (71%) 210 (100%)
1991 50 (20%) 201 (80%) 251 (100%)
1992 46 (23%) 150 (77%) 196 (100%)
1993 105 (41%) 151 (59%) 256 (100%)
1994 92 (32%) 198 (68%) 290 (100%)

Source: League for Human Rights (1994)

Table 17 - Anti-Semitic Incidents in Canada: Principal Cities Affected, 1994
City # of Incidents % Total Incidents in Canada
Toronto 146 50%
Montreal 55 19%
Ottawa 36 12%

Source: League for Human Rights (1994) Note: Percentages exceed 100% due to multiple responding Source: 519 Church Street Community Centre.

Table 18 - Statistics from Lesbian/Gay Hotline in Toronto 1990-1995
Assault Reported Number of Incidents % Total Incidents
Physical & Verbal 175 36%
Verbal harassment 136 30%
Threatening 72 15%
Physical Assault 51 10%
Vandalism/Theft 43 9%
Sexual Assault 10 <1%
TOTAL 487 100%

Source: 519 Church Street Community Centre.

Table 19 - Injuries reported to Gay/Lesbian Hotline
Injury Reported Percentage Reporting
Head injuries 16%
Bruises 100%
Lacerations 29%
Scratches 6%
Sprains 6%
Rapes 1%
Groin injuries 2%
Fractures 17%
Emotional trauma requiring time off 1%

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