"There Ought to Be a Law!" – Instrument Choice: An Overview of the Issues

Appendix: Summary of Instrument Inventories

Author(s) Main Categories Sub-Categories Orientation
Kirschen
  • public finance
  • money and credit
  • exchange rate
  • direct control
  • changes in institutional structure
62 economic; means by which government affects factors of production, market transactions, and distribution
Hood
  • nodality
  • authority
  • treasure
  • organization
25 cybernetic; effectors and detectors that both act upon environment and draw information from it
McDonnell and Elmore
  • mandates
  • inducements
  • capacity building
  • system changing
N/A government as channeling social forces in particular directions; acting "at a distance" through capacity building
Linder and Peters
  • direct provision
  • subsidy
  • tax
  • contract
  • authority
  • regulation
  • exhortation
24 inductive approach based on perceptions of policy makers themselves
Schneider and Ingram
  • authority
  • incentives
  • capacity
  • symbolic and hortatory
  • learning
N/A behavioural approach; effect on individuals’ incentives and capacities
Doern and Phidd
  • self-regulation
  • exhortation
  • expenditure
  • regulation
  • public ownership
26 legislator’s perspective; sliding scale of coercion and link to larger system’s standards of legitimacy coercion

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