The Development of the Brief Spousal Assault Form for the Evaluation of Risk (B-SAFER): A Tool for Criminal Justice Professionals

Appendix D - Post-test B-SAFER Form

B-SAFER Worksheet Brief Spousal Assault Form for the Evaluation of Risk

By P. Randall Kropp, Stephen D. Hart, and Henrik Belfrage

Development of the B-SAFER was funded in part by the Department of Justice, Canada, and the Rikspolisstyrelsen, Sweden

Distributed by ProActive ReSolutions Inc.

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Identifying Information

Instructions

The B-SAFER is a guide for the assessment and management of risk for spousal assault. It helps users to exercise their best judgement. The administration procedures and risk factors included in the B-SAFER were determined from a review of hundreds of scientific and professional publications on spousal violence. There are no cutoff scores or other rules that can be used to determine the nature or degree of risk posed by an offender; the presence of a single risk factor may justify a conclusion that the person poses a high risk for future spousal violence.

This Worksheet is intended to assist administration of the B-SAFER. It should be used as described in and only in conjunction with the B-SAFER User Manual . Users evaluate and document the presence of each risk factor "Currently" (in the past four weeks) and "In the past" (prior to the past four weeks). These judgements are documented as "Y" for Yes, the factor was present; "?" for Unsure, the factor was possibly or partially present; or "N" for No, the factor was absent. If a risk factor was not considered due to missing information, it should be omitted. Following consideration of individual risk factors, users recommend risk management strategies and document conclusory opinions.

Use of the B-SAFER requires the gathering and documenting of sensitive information. Every effort should be made to keep confidential any information that could jeopardize the safety of the victim/complainant. The language used in the Worksheet assumes the offender is male and the victim/complainant is female, but the B-SAFER can be used regardless of the gender or marital status of the people involved.

Copyright © 2004 by P. R. Kropp, S. D. Hart, & H. Belfrage Any copying, reproduction, or retransmission by any means is prohibited under international law.

Section I: Spousal Violence

This section includes risk factors related to the person's history of violence against intimate partners, including any wife, common-law spouse, or girlfriend.

Presence

Currently

Y, ?, N

In the Past

Y, ?, N

Assault
Actual or attempted physical and sexual assault, including assault with a weapon
Excludes threats and threatening behavior, which are considered under Factor #2
Violent Threats or Ideation
Statements or intimidating behavior indicating intent to harm others, including stalking and threats with a weapon
Thoughts, urges, fantasies, or plans concerning causing harm to others
Escalation
Increase in the frequency or severity of violence or of threats/ideation
Violation of Court Orders
Breach of conditions of bail, probation, parole, restraining orders, peace bonds, and so forth that were imposed because of spousal violence or to prevent spousal violence
Negative Attitudes
Beliefs and values that encourage or excuse abusive, controlling, and violent behavior, including sexual jealousy, misogyny, and patriarchy
Minimization or denial of spousal violence or the consequences of spousal violence
Other Considerations
Specify any additional risk factors related to the person's history of psychological (personal) and social (interpersonal) adjustment problems

Specify any additional risk factors related to the person's history of spousal violence

Copyright © 2004 by P. R. Kropp, S. D. Hart, & H. Belfrage
Any copying, reproduction, or retransmission by any means is prohibited under international law.

Section II: Psychosocial Adjustment

This section includes risk factors related to the person's history of psychological (personal) and social (interpersonal) adjustment problems.

Presence

Currently

Y, ?, N

In the Past

Y, ?, N

Other Antisocial Behavior
Criminal conduct that is persistent, frequent, or diverse
Excludes criminal conduct related to spousal violence, which is considered in Section I
Intimate Relationship Problems
Failure to establish or maintain stable, long-term intimate relationships as indicated by such things as separation from partner and extreme conflict regarding relationship status
Includes any intimate relationship problems that result from spousal violence
Employment Problems
Failure to establish or maintain stable, long-term employment, as indicated by such things as chronic unemployment, frequent job changes, poor work performance, and significant financial difficulties
Includes any employment problems that result from spousal violence
Substance Use Problems
Impairment of health or social functioning due to use of illegal drugs, alcohol, or prescription drugs, as indicated by such things as overdose, physical illness, arrest, job loss, or relationship difficulties
Includes any substance use problems that result from spousal violence
Mental Health Problems
May suffer from serious mental disorder, as indicated by such things as irrational beliefs or perceptions, serious disturbance of mood, and long-standing problems related to anger, impulsivity, or instability
Includes any mental health problems that result from spousal violence
Other Considerations
Specify any additional risk factors related to the person's history of psychological (personal) and social (interpersonal) adjustment problems

Specify any additional risk factors related to the person's history of psychological (personal) and social (interpersonal) adjustment problems

Copyright © 2004 by P. R. Kropp, S. D. Hart, & H. Belfrage
Any copying, reproduction, or retransmission by any means is prohibited under international law.

Recommended Risk Management Strategies

Monitoring/Surveillance

What are the most appropriate ways to monitor changes in risk?

Face-to-face interviews
  • Offender/accused
  • Victim/Complainant
Telephone interviews
  • Offender/accused
  • Victim/Complainant
Visits
  • Offender/accused
  • Victim/Complainant

Notes:

Control/Supervision

What restrictions on activity, movement, association, or communication are most appropriate?

  • Remand in custody
  • Restraining order
  • Report as directed
  • Remand as directed
  • No alcohol/drugs
  • No weapons
  • Don't contact (specify)
  • Don't associate (specify)
  • Don't travel (specify)

Notes:

Assessment/Treatment

What assessment, treatment, or rehabilitation strategies are most appropriate?

Emergency 
  • Hopsitalization 
  • Certification 
Assessment/treatment
  • Mental health 
  • Crisis intervention 
Counseling
  • Spousal violence 
  • Substance use 

Notes:

Victim Safety Planning

What steps could enhance the physical security or self-protective skills of the victim/complainant?

Counseling
  • Support/advocacy
  • Mental health
Improve security
  • Residential (specify)
  • Workplace (specify)
Lifestyle changes
  • Residence
  • Work/travel
Notes:

Conclusory Opinions

Case Prioritization

What is the level of concern that the person will commit spousal violence in the future if no intervention is taken?

  • High/Urgent
  • Moderate/Elevated
  • Low/Routine
Life-Threatening Violence

What is the level of concern that any future spousal violence will involve life-threatening physical harm if no intervention is taken?

  • High/Urgent
  • Moderate/Elevated
  • Low/Routine
Imminent Violence

What is the level of concern that the person is an imminent risk to commit spousal violence if no intervention is taken?

  • High/Urgent
  • Moderate/Elevated
  • Low/Routine
Likely Victims

Who are the likely victims of any future spousal violence?

  • Current or former intimate partner
  • Family/friends of current or former intimate partner
  • Other:

Copyright © 2004 by P. R. Kropp, S. D. Hart, & H. Belfrage
Any copying, reproduction, or retransmission by any means is prohibited under international law.

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