Making appropriate parenting arrangements in family violence cases: applying the literature to identify promising practices

Description of figures

Figure 1 : Variables Hypothetically Associated with Impact of Family Violence

FIRST BOX, FIRST ROW CONTAINS

  1. Type of Violence/ abuse (Physical, sexual, emotional)
  2. Abuser /victim Relationship (father to mother, mother to father, child maltreatment by father, child maltreatment by mother, maltreatment of siblings by one or both parents, abuse among siblings)
  3. Characteristics of Violence (duration, frequency, severity, recency, etc.).

FROM FIRST BOX, FIRST ROW, ARROW (labelled “Intervention”) POINTING DOWN TO FIRST BOX, SECOND ROW

FIRST BOX, SECOND ROW CONTAINS

CHILD SAFETY
Minimize or eliminate child's contact with violence & abuse (criminal justice response, VAW advocacy, child protection services, legal services).

FROM FIRST BOX, FIRST ROW, ARROW POINTING RIGHT (labelled “MODERATED BY”) TO SECOND BOX, FIRST ROW

SECOND BOX, FIRST ROW CONTAINS

FAMILY CONTEXT
Socio-economic factors, quality of parent child bond, parenting skill, Relationship of male partner to child, Social support (e.g., extended family), parental mental health, alcohol / substance use of parent, level of non-violent interparental conflict, residential safety & stability, Parental resources (e.g., education, employment skills), Level of emotional or physical neglect of child, Abuse by someone, outside nuclear family (e.g., uncle, teacher), exposure to community violence, absences for parental incarceration, cultural factors, emigration / immigration stress, war / political violence).

FROM SECOND BOX, FIRST ROW, ARROW POINTING DOWN (labelled “Intervention”) TO SECOND BOX, SECOND ROW

SECOND BOX, SECOND ROW CONTAINS

FAMILY SUPPORT
decrease harmful & increase helpful contextual factors (advocacy, professional and informal supports).

FROM SECOND BOX, FIRST ROW, ARROW POINTING RIGHT (labelled “MEDIATED BY”) TO THIRD BOX, FIRST ROW

THIRD BOX, FIRST ROW CONTAINS
CHILD ATTRIBUTION & COPING

Type and level determined by:

  1. Age at Onset of Violence (i.e., developmental stage:  infant/toddler, pre-schooler, school-aged child, adolescent),
  2. Number of developmental stages spanned by violence,
  3. Age of child at (any) intervention,
  4. Other Qualities of Child (cognitive ability, special needs, temperament, gender, etc.).

FROM THIRD BOX, FIRST ROW, ARROW POINTING DOWN (labelled “Intervention”) TO THIRD BOX, SECOND ROW

THIRD BOX, SECOND ROW CONTAINS

CHILD SUPPORT
Devise developmentally sensitive intervention (assessment, re-frame coping, heal mother/child bond, trauma therapy).

FROM THIRD BOX, FIRST ROW, ARROW POINTING RIGHT (labelled “PREDICTS”) TO FOURTH BOX, FIRST ROW

FOURTH BOX, FIRST ROW CONTAINS

FOOTNOTE TO FORTH BOX, FIRST ROW

In the literature, we found studies that positioned inter-parental violence as either the correlate or cause of these outcomes: adaptive behaviour skills, aggression to siblings, alcoholism, animal abuse, anti-social behaviour, anxiety, attitudes condoning male-to-female violence, carrying a gun, concerns about becoming a parent, criminal victimization, depression, dysfunctional emotional regulation, early onset of intercourse, having 30 or more sexual partners, hopelessness, fights at school, health problems, reduced IQ, life satisfaction, male involvement in teen pregnancy, marital dissatisfaction, obesity, parenting skill deficits, post-traumatic stress disorder, post-traumatic stress  symptoms, pre-parenthood concerns, psychiatric symptoms, psychopathy, reading skill deficits, school performance, self-esteem, social competence, smoking, substance abuse, suicide attempts, un-happiness, unintended pregnancy, and violence toward dating partners and spouses.

NB: Inter-parental violence may also be positioned as a moderator variable or a dependent variable (i.e., effect).

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Figure 3 : Child Custody: Specialized Assessment Needs in Spousal Violence Cases

This illustration is in the shape of a triangle divided into three levels. 

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Figure 4 : Differentiated Custody Interventions in Spousal Violence Cases

This illustration is in the shape of a large arrow pointing up with two smaller arrows branching off from the right hand side.  The larger arrow is labelled “Normal Conflict” with a bulleted list which includes: education program, mediation services, collaborative law, co-parenting plan or joint custody.

The upper branching arrow is labelled “High Conflict (with no spousal violence)” with a bulleted list which includes: custody evaluation, therapeutic programs to reduce conflict, litigation and arbitration, parallel parenting.

The lower branching arrow is labelled “Spousal Violence” with a bulleted list which includes: Batterer’s intervention program, DV victim services, Programs for children exposed to spousal violence, Supervised visitation program, Specialized assessors, Court monitoring/review hearings, Sole custody.

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Figure 5 : Parenting Arrangements after Family Violence

The illustration is of a double headed arrow. The arrow is labelled along the outside edge from High to Low Evaluated Risk in Children of Caregiver. In the interior of the arrow, there are the following labels staring at the end corresponding to high risk and proceeding to low risk: No Visitation, Supervised Visits, Supervised Exchange, Parallel Parenting, Co-parenting.

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Figure 6 : Parenting Arrangements after Family Violence

This illustration depicts two double headed arrows side-by-side oriented vertically. The first arrow has at the top a label “Minor and isolated acts of family violence” under this is the label “High Conflict”.  At the bottom point of the arrow is the label “Terrorism/Stalking” above that is the label “Battering” and above that is the label “More severe and frequent family violence”.  Between the groups of labels (“top” and “bottom”) is a text box containing the label “Nature, Frequency and Severity of Family Violence”.

There is a small horizontal arrow pointing to the second vertical arrow.

The second vertical arrow is labelled along the outside edge from High to Low Evaluated Risk in Children of Caregiver. In the interior of the arrow, there are the following labels starting at the end corresponding to high risk and proceeding to low risk: No Visitation, Supervised Visits, Supervised Exchange, Parallel Parenting, Co-parenting.

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Figure 7 : Parenting Arrangements after Family Violence

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Figure 8 : Parenting Arrangements after Family Violence

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