Legal Representation of Children in Canada

10. Resource List

a. Statutes and Regulations

i. Federal

  • Divorce Act, RSC 1985, c 3 (2nd Supp)
  • Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, SC 2001, c 27
  • Rules of the Supreme Court of Canada, SOR/2002-156
  • Youth Criminal Justice Act, SC 2002, c 1

ii. Alberta

  • Alberta Rules of Court, Alta Reg 124/2010
  • Child and Youth Advocate Act, SA 2011, c C-11.5
  • Child, Youth and Family Enhancement Act, RSA 2000, c C-12
  • Child and Youth Advocate Regulation, Alta Reg 53/2012
  • Family Law Act, SA 2003, c F-4.5

iii. British Columbia

  • Court of Appeal Rules, BC Reg 297/2001
  • Family Law Act, SBC 2011, c 25

iv. Manitoba

  • Court of Queen's Bench Rules, Man Reg 553/88
  • The Child and Family Services Act, CCSM c C80

v. New Brunswick

  • Family Services Act, SNB 1980, c F-2.2
  • Provincial Offences Procedure for Young Persons Act, SNB 1987, c P-22.2
  • Rules of Court, NB Reg 82-73

vi. Newfoundland and Labrador

  • Children's Law Act, RSNL 1990, c C-13
  • Children and Youth Care and Protection Act, SNL 2010, c C-12.2
  • Judicature Act, RSNL 1990, c J-4
  • Provincial Court Family Rules, 2007, N.L.R. 28/07
  • Rules of the Supreme Court, 1986, SNL 1986, c 42, Sch D

vii. Nova Scotia

  • Children and Family Services Act, SNS 1990, c 5
  • Family Court Rules, NS Reg 20/93
  • Nova Scotia Civil Procedure Rules, N.S. Civ. Pro. Rules 2009, s. 36.01

viii. Northwest Territories

  • Child and Family Services Act, SNWT 1997, c 13
  • Children's Law Act, SNWT 1997, c 14
  • Rules of Practice and Procedure, NWT Reg 047-96
  • Rules of the Supreme Court of the Northwest Territories, N.W.T. Reg. 010-96
  • Youth Justice Act, SNWT 2003, c 31

ix. Nunavut

  • Child and Family Services Act, SNWT (Nu) 1997, c 13
  • Children's Law Act, SNWT (Nu) 1997, c 14
  • Rules of the Supreme Court of the Northwest Territories, NWT Reg (Nu) 010-96
  • Young Offenders Act, RSNWT (Nu) 1988 , c Y-1

x. Ontario

  • Child and Family Services Act, RSO 1990, c C.11
  • Courts of Justice Act, R.S.O. 1990, Chap. C. 43
  • Estates Act, RSO 1990, c E.21
  • Family Law Rules, O Reg 114/99
  • Health Care Consent Act, 1996, SO 1996, c 2, Sch A
  • Land Titles Act, RSO 1990, c L.5
  • Mental Health Act, RSO 1990, c M.7, s.43
  • Rules of Civil Procedure, RRO 1990, Reg 194
  • Workplace Safety and Insurance Act, 1997, SO 1997, c 16, Sch A

xi. Prince Edward Island

  • Child Protection Act, RSPEI 1988, c C-5.1
  • Custody Jurisdiction and Enforcement Act, RSPEI 1988, c C-33
  • Rules of Civil Procedure

xii. Quebec

  • Code of Civil Procedure, CQLR c C-25
  • Youth Protection Act, CQLR c P-34.1

xiii. Saskatchewan

  • Provincial Court Act, 1988, SS 1998, c. P-30.11
  • Public Guardian and Trustee Act, SS 1983, c P-36.3
  • Queen’s Bench Act, 1998, C.Q-1.01
  • Queen’s Bench Rules, Sask. Q.B. Rules
  • The Court of Appeal Rules

xiv. Yukon

  • Child and Family Services Act, S.Y. 2008, c. 1
  • Children's Law Act, RSY 2002, c 31
  • Court of Appeal Rules, 2005, 2005
  • Rules of Court, Y.O.I.C. 2009/65

b. Case Law

  • A.L.H. v. D.B.B., 2010 YKSC 54 (CanLII)
  • B. (S.G.) v. L. (S.J.), 2010 ONCA 578
  • Bhajan v. Bhajan, 2010 ONCA 714
  • B.L. v. M.L., 2011 YKSC 67 (CanLII)
  • C. B. c. R. L., 2003 CanLII 48319 (QC CS)
  • C.M.M. v. D.G.C., 2015 ONSC 2447
  • F.(M.) c. L.(J.), 2002 CanLII 36783 (QC CA)
  • G. (C.M.) v. S. (D.W.), 2015 ONSC 2201
  • K, Re, (1994), 17 Fam. L.R. 537 (Australia Fam. Ct.)
  • Kalaserk v. Nelson, 2005 NWTSC 4
  • Kerfoot v. Pritchard, 2005 CarswellSask 942, [2006] W.D.F.L. 3807
  • L.M.H. v. S.R.H., 2010 ABQB 769 (CanLII)
  • N. (A.), Re, 2009 CarswellAlta 1651 (Prov. Ct.)
  • N.A., Re, 2009 ABPC 305
  • Puszczak v. Puszczak, 2005 ABCA 426
  • S. (B.L.), Re, 2013 ABPC 132
  • Smith v. Lagace, 2011 ABQB 405 (CanLII)
  • Strobridge v. Strobridge (1994), 18 O.R. (3d) 753 (Ont. C.A.)
  • T.E.A. v. R.S.A., 2012 YKSC 65 (CanLII)
  • Wagner v. Melton, 2012 NWTSC 41
  • Wahl v. Wahl (2000), 2000 ABQB 10 (CanLII), 257 A.R. 212 (Q.B.)

c. Literature and Reports

  • Alberta Office of the Children and Youth Advocate. “Legal Representation for Children and Youth Policy Manual” (February 1, 2015), online: < http://www.ocya.alberta.ca/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/PolMan_2015Feb_LRCY.pdf>
  • Barreau du Québec. “Memoire: La Representation des Enfnats par Avocat Dix Ans Plus Tard. (May 2006), online:  < https://www.barreau.qc.ca/pdf/medias/positions/2006/200605-representation_des_enfants.pdf>
  • Birnbaum, Rachel. “Independent Child Legal Representation: A Concept in the Making”. (January 2005) Journal of Law and Social Policy. Vol 20 article 6
  • Birnbaum, Rachel; Nicholas Bala, & Francine Cyr. “Children’s Experiences with Family Justice Professionals In Ontario and Ohio” (2011) 25 International Journal of Policy, Law and the Family 398
  • Birnbaum, Rachel. “Hearing the Voices of Lawyers and Clinical Agents Who Represent Children in Child Custody and Access Disputes” (2005) Canadian Family Law Quarterly, 24 CFLQ 281
  • Birnbaum, Rachel. “Examining Court Outcomes in Child Custody Disputes: Child Legal Representation and Clinical Investigations” (2005), 24 CFLQ 167
  • Birnbaum, Rachel; Nicholas Bala, & Lorne Bertrand. “Controversy about the Role of Children’s Lawyers: Advocate or Best Interests Guardian? Comparing Practices in Two Canadian Jurisdictions with Different Policies for Lawyers” (October 2013) Family Court Review, Vol. 51 No. 4, 681–697
  • Birnbaum, Rachel & Nicholas Bala. “The child’s perspective on legal representation: young people report on their experiences with child lawyers” (2009) Canadian Journal of Family Law 25(1), 11–71
  • Birnbaum, Rachel; Nicholas Bala & Francine Cyr. “Children’s Experiences with Family Justice Professionals in Ontario and Ohio” (2011) International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family 25(3), 398–422
  • Birnbaum, Rachel & Dena Moyal, “How Social Workers and Lawyers Collaborate to Promote Resolutions in the Interests of Children: The Interface between Law in Theory and Law in Action” (2003) 21 Can. Fam. L.Q. 379
  • Burns, Clare. “Child Clients: An Ongoing Ethical Dilemma” [unpublished], online: <http://docplayer.net/1950417-Child-clients-an-ongoing-ethical-dilemma-clare-e-burns-1.html>
  • Canadian Foundation for Children, Youth & the Law/Justice for Children and Youth. “Children’s Right to be Heard in Canadian Judicial and Administrative Proceedings”. (Submission for the Committee on the Rights of the Child General Day of Discussion) (2006), online: <http://jfcy.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/UNDiscussionPaper.pdf>
  • Drews, Michael & Pamela Halprin. “Determining the Effective Representation of a Child in Our Legal System: Do Current Standards Accomplish the Goal?” (July 2002) Family Court Review. Vol. 40, 383-402
  • Elgersma, Sandra. “Unaccompanied and Separated Minos as Refugee Claimants” (October 11, 2007) Parliament of Canada, Political and Social Affairs Division, online:  <http://www.parl.gc.ca/Content/LOP/researchpublications/prb0715-e.htm>
  • Fleishman, Jodi. “Mandatory Legal Representation for Children in Custody, Access and Child Protection Proceedings”. (2005) McGill University Faculty of Law [unpublished]
  • Guggenheim, Martin. “The AAML’s Revised Standards for Representing Children in Custody and Visitation Proceedings: The Reporter’s Perspective” (2009) Journal of the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers. Vol 22
  • Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada website. “Chairperson Guideline 3: Child Refugee Claimants: Procedural and Evidentiary Issues”. (September 30, 1996), online: <http://www.irb-cisr.gc.ca/Eng/BoaCom/references/pol/GuiDir/Pages/GuideDir03.aspx>
  • Mamo, Alfred & Danielle Gauvreau, “Judicial Interviews of Children in Custody/Access Disputes” (2011) [unpublished, archived at County of Carleton Law Association] at 1
  • Mamo, Alfred; Peter Jaffe and Debbie Chiodo. “Recapturing and Renewing the Vision of the Family Court” (2007) Ministry of the Attorney General of Ontario, online: <http://www.learningtoendabuse.ca/sites/default/files/Family%20Court%20Study%202007.pdf>
  • Marron, Kevin. “Child rule changed: checks on divorces no longer required” (11 February 1987) The Globe and Mail, A11
  • McSweeney, Lucy and Nancy Webb. “Clinical Services at the Office of the Children’s Lawyer” (October 2012) Ontario Bar Association Matrimonial Affairs. Volume 25, No. 1, online: <http://www.oba.org/en/pdf/sec_news_fam_oct12_Clinical_McSweeney_Webb.pdf>
  • Office of the Child and Youth Advocate. “Legal Representation for Children and Youth Policy Manual” (February 1, 2015), online: <http://www.ocya.alberta.ca/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/PolMan_2015Feb_LRCY.pdf>
  • Office of the Auditor General of Ontario. “2013 Annual Report” (Queen’s Printer for Ontario:  2011), ch.3, p. 218
  • Office of the Children’s Lawyer. “Annual Update 2014-2015”. Ontario Ministry of the Attorney General (July 2015), online: <http://www.attorneygeneral.jus.gov.on.ca/english/about/pubs/ocl_annual/OCL_annual_report_2015.html>
  • Ontario Ministry of the Attorney General, Office of the Children’s Lawyer. “Child Protection Consultation Committee Final Report” (August 2013), online: <http://www.afccontario.ca/OCL%20Child%20Protection%20Consultation%20Report%20Sept%202013.pdf>
  • Paetsch, Joanne; Lorne Bertrand; Jan Walker; Leslie MacRae & Nicholas Bala. “Consultation on the Voice of the Child at the 5th World Congress on Family Law and Children’s Rights” (2009) [unpublished], online: <http://www.crilf.ca/Documents/Consultation%20on%20Voice%20of%20the%20Child%20-%20Dec%202009.pdf>
  • Pearson, Sheryl & Jackie Stewart. “Role of Counsel Project: Discussion Paper and Final Guidelines” [unpublished], online: <http://www.lawrights.asn.au/files/Pearson%20and%20Stewart,%20full%20paper.pdf>
  • Savoury, Carolyn. “A Voice for The Small: Judicial Meetings in Custody and Access Disputes” (2013) Canadian Journal of Family Law, 28 Can. J. Fam. L. 225
  • Semple, Noel. “Whose Best Interests? Custody and Access Law and Procedure” (Summer 2010), 48 Osgoode Hall L.J. 287
  • Unicef Canada. “About the Convention on the Rights of the Child”, online: <http://www.unicef.ca/en/policy-advocacy-for-children/about-the-convention-on-the-rights-of-the-child>
  • United Nations. Concluding observations on the combined third and fourth periodic report of Canada, adopted by the Committee at its sixty-first session (17 September – 5 October 2012) (6 December 2012).
  • Wilson, Jeffery. Wilson on Children and the Law. (Toronto: Butterworths, 1994) Looseleaf

d. Rules of Professional Conduct

e. Guidelines

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