Report on sentencing for manslaughter in cases involving intimate relationships

Sentencing in Manslaughter Cases Involving Intimate Relationships
BASIC DATA, FACTORS INFLUENCING SENTENCE
1 Case Name 2 Jurisdiction & Court 3 Month/Year of Sentence, Date of Offence 4 Offender 5 Victim 6 Original charge(s) 7 Trial/ GuiltyPlea 8 Pre-Sentence Custody/ Custodial Sentence/ Global Sentence 9 Appeal Resul 10 Location of Crime 11 Relationship between Victim/Offender 12 Domestic Nature of Crime 13 No contact Order 14 History of spousal violence toward Victim and/or others 15 Prior convictions for spousal related offences 16 Prior convictions for violent related offence(s) 17 Firearms used in commission of the offence 18 Alcohol and/or drugs consumed at time of offence 19 History of spousal violence perpetrated by Victim toward Offender 20 Mental health/Psychological issues re: Offender 21 Other Mitigating/Aggravating factors
Pearson N.-B. 06/02 11/01 M F SDM T (Jury) 9y   Home CL x         x       No provocation, Conduct after shooting, Manner of death and lying to police (A) / Family support, youthful, Positive PSR (M)
White Sask, Q.B. 03/ 02, 05/ 99 M F ? GP 9y   Home M x( 718.2)   x     x O-A   x  
Perrambalam Ont, SCJ 08/ 01, 01/ 01 M F SDM GP 8m/ 5y, 6m/ 7y   Home M x (718.2)                 V suffered dementia, O 80 yrs (M)
Raddi NWT, SC 07/01, 06/00 M-Ab F-Ab ? GP 1y/ 8.5y/ 10y   ? CL x (718.2)   x x x   O-A, V-A     718.2(e)
Sheppard PEI, SC-TD 06/01, 12/00 M F SDM GP 10y   Home CL x (718.2)           O-A, V-A     CW (A)
Couture Yukon, YTC 11/01, 07/01 M F ? GP 4m/ 3.5y/ 4y   Home CL X(718.2)   x x     O-A+D V-A+D     both partners abusive, self-defence (excessive force) (M)
Fennel PEI, SCTD 03/01, ? M F FDM GP 7 m/ 14y/ ?   Home CL x (718.2) x (crim) x x x   O-A, V-A      
Hyjek Ont, S.C.J. 04/00, 01/95 M F SDM T - MD 6y/ 7y/ 10y   Home M x (718.2)               x  
Ekenale (A.J.E.) NWT, SC 06/00, 07/71 M- Ab F-Ab M GP 9m/ 5y/ 6.5y   rivage NR x (718.2)       x   O-A, V-A     718.2(e), concealed crime (A)
Saunders Ont, SCJ 12/00, ? M-Ab F-Ab SDM T - accident/ suicid 22m/ 8y/ 12y   Home M x(718.2)     x     O-A, V-A     718.2(e)
Hanna Ont, SCJ 08/00, 10/99 F M ? GP 6m/ 18m + 3y probation/ 28m   V's workplace CL             O-A   x  
McCulloch BC, BCCA (2001) 07/00, 07/96 M F ? GP 1.5y/ 9y/ 12y O-SU arrow right Home CL x(718.2) x(crim) x x           concealed crime (A))
Augustine Ont, OCJ (GD) 01/99, 08/97 M F SDM GP 17m/ 6.5y/ 9y   Home M x                 concealed crime (A)
Emard BC, BCSC 01/99, 01/97 F-Ab M ? T 2less1,   Home M             O-A, V-A     718.2(e)
Getkate Ont, OCJ (GD) 10/98, ? F M FDM T - BWS 2less1, served in community   ? M           x   x-BWS   provocation (M)
Gladue BC, SCC 02/97, 09/95 F-Ab M-Ab SDM GP 3y O-SU O's sister's home CL x(718.2)           O-A, V-A x x provocation
Ferguson Ont, OCJ 05/97, 10/93 F M SDM T - BWS 2less1, O-SU Home CL           x O-A x-BWS   provocation
Klassen* Yukon, CA,(1997) 02/97, ? M F SDM T 15m/ 5y/ 7y C-SU arrow right Home M x(718.2)                  
Zagorac Alta, ACA (1997) Pre- 1996, ? M F SDM T life O-SU arrow right Home M x   x x           O condones DV (A)
Jackson Alta, ACA (1996) Pre-1996, 01/93 M-Ab F-Ab SDM T - insanity 15m/ ?/ 10y C-SU arrow right Home CL x   x x         x CW (A)
Whynot NS, NSCA (1996) Pre- 1996, 05/92 F M SDM GP 5 O-SU arrow right Home M             O-A, V-A x   both partners abusive
G.M.W. BC, BCCA (1995) Pre-  1996, 05/93 M F ? GP 5 O-SU arrow right Home M x                  
Stone BC, SCC (1999) 12/95, 03/94 M F SDM T - A, P 18m/ 4y/ 7y C-SU arrow right O's truck M x(718.2)                 provocation (M)
Gray Ont, OCJ (GD) 01/95, 01/94 M-Ab F SDM GP 1y/ 6y/ ?   Home CL x           O-A   x  
DEC BC, BCSC 02/95, 01/77 F M SDM GP 1y SS   Home CL x         x   x-BWS   concealed crime (A)
Bell Ont, OCJ (GD) 03/95, 10/93 M F SDM GP 15m/ 7y 3m/ 9 or 10y   Home CL         x          
Ghazal PQ, Q.S.C. 06/95, ? M F SDM GP 10m/ 9y/ ?   Home M x           O-A      
McDow G.A.M. NS, NSCA (1996) 01/95, 01/93 F M SDM GP 2less1, 3y probation C-SO, 5y arrow up Home CL x           O-A     BWS- O abused by father, brother, friend (M)
Cowley Ont, OCJ (PD) 02/95, ? F M SDM GP 7m, 3y probation   ? CL             O-A x-BWS    
Drake Ont, OCJ (GD) 07/95, ? F M SDM GP SS, 3y probation   street M               x-BWS    
Lemay PQ, QCA (1998) 02/94, 06/92 M F FDM T 20y O-SO, 13y arrow down O's cottage NR x   x x         x concealed crime (A)
Lastheels Ont, OCJ (GD) 04/94, ? M F ? GP 46m   ? CL     x   x   O-A      
Duval NB, QB 02/94, 06/92 M F SDM GP 6y   Home CL             O-A, V-A      
Mintert BC, BCCA (1995) 08/94, 07/93 M F ? GP 13m/ 7y/ ? O-SU arrow right V's home CL       x            
Bennett Ont, OCJ (PD) 01/93, 10/90 F M FDM GP SS, 3y probation   ? M             O-A x-BWS    
Brooks OCJ (GD) 06/93, 07/91 M F Murder GP 2y/ 6y/ 9y   ? CL x           O-A+D   x  
Kabestra Ont, OCJ (GD) 10/93, 04/93 F M SDM GP 5m/ 5y/ ?   ? CL         x   O-A      
Massettoe BC, BCPC 02/93, 06/92 F-Ab M-Ab ? ? 1y, 3y probation   ? CL             O-A, V-A x   both partners abusive
Bell Man., MCA (1993) Pre- 1993, 10/91 M F SDM GP 5.5y C-SO, 12yarrow up O's father's home NR         x   O-A, V-A      
Brown Man., Q.B. 05/92, 05/90 F-Ab M ? GP 3y SS, 3y probation   Home CL           x O-A x-BWS    
Phillips Ont, OCJ (GD) 10/92, 12/91 F M SDM GP 2less1, 3y probation   Home CL             O-A, V-A     BWS - previous partners (M)
Pepin Ont., OCJ (GD) 01/92, 04/91 M F FDM GP 6m/ 9y/ 10y   hotel room CL     x       O-A, V-A      
Whitten NS, NSSC - TD 01/92, 10/90 F M SDM GP SS, 3y probation   Home CL             O-A, V-A x-BWS    
Neyelle NWT, SC 10/92, 12/90 F-Ab M-Ab ? T 2 years less 1 day   Home M     x x     O-A, V-A x   CW
Sinclair Man., MCA (1992) Pre- 1992, ? M-Ab F-Ab ? GP 6y O-SU arrow right ? CL             O-A, V-A      
Tran Ont, OCJ (GD) 10/91, 02/89 F M SDM GP 3.5m/ 1y, 3y probation/ ?   Home CL               x-BWS x  
Archibald BC, BCCA (1992) Pre- 1992, ? M F Murder T 5y O-SO, 4y hotel room CL             O-A     provocation (M)
Howard BC, BCCA (1991) 04/91, 03/90 F-Ab M-Ab SDM GP 5.5y O-SO, 2y Home M             O-A, V-A x   provocation (M), CW
Zimmer Sask., C.A. (1991) Pre- 1991, 05/90 M F SDM GP 15y O-SO, 10y Home CL         x   O-A      

* application for leave to appeal to the SCC dismissed

NOTE: Cases appear in reverse chronological order

KEY:

Column 2: where decision is an appeal, year of appeal is indicated

Column 3: indicates year of original sentence

Columns 4 & 5: M = male, F = female, Ab = Aboriginal

*only where a victim or offender was specifically identified as Aboriginal was this noted

Column 6: FDM = first degree murder, SDM = second degree murder, M = manslaughter, Murder = second/ first degree not specified

Column 7: GP = guilty plea to manslaughter, T = pled not guilty and trial ensued – in these cases certain defenses are noted; MD = mental disorder, BWS = battered women syndrome (see Lavallee), A = automatism, P = provocation, in all T cases, offender was convicted of manslaughter

Column 8: first figure = time spent in pre-trial custody, second figure = custodial sentence, third figure = global sentence, where only one figure is noted, no mention was made re: pre-trial custody, y = years, m = months, SS = suspended sentence

Column 9: O = offender, C = Crown, SU = sentence upheld, SO = sentence overturned (in these cases, new sentence will be noted in years, unless otherwise indicated)

Column 10: V = victim, O = offender, home = victim’s and offender’s shared residence

Column 11: M = married, CL = common law, NR = non-residential or informal intimate relationship in which O and V did not cohabit

Column 12: 718.2 = 718.2(a)(ii) specifically considered by judge, x = domestic nature of crime considered as an aggravating factor

Column 13: crim = criminal order, civ = civil order

Column 14: *only where the judge specifically indicated that there was a history of spousal violence perpetrated by the accused is this noted

Column 15: *only where the judge specifically indicated that a prior conviction was for a spousal related offence is this noted

Column 18: O-A = offender under influence of alcohol at time of offence, V-A = victim under influence of alcohol at time of offence, D = drugs

Column 19: BWS = evidence of battered women syndrome considered, as defined in SCC decision Lavallee

Column 21: 718.2(e) considered in sentencing as in Gladue, A = considered as an aggravating factor, M = considered as a mitigating factor, BWS – previous partners = offender found to suffer the effects of BWS as a result of treatment from previous partners rather than the victim, DV = domestic violence, CW = child(ren) of home witnessed at least part of the crime

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